By Gereon Müller
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Additional info for A-bar Syntax: A Study in Movement Types
Abstract incorporation). The last strategy is available in languages like Dutch or German, where a close relationship of I and C is independently attested, but not in languages like English, Swedish, or Russian. 3. Barriers in situ Unambiguous binding Given that an IP barrier is responsible for the occurrence of complementizertrace effects, and given that adjunction to an IP would resolve its barrierhood, we must ensure that movement to SpecC may not use an IP-adjoined position as a loophole.
14 (31) a. b. c. Wer¿ meinst du [cp t- daß [IP t¿ ihn geküßt hat ]] ? who nom think you that him kissed has Warum* meinst du [cp t[ daß [IP sie t¿ ihn geküßt hat ]] ? why think you that she him kissed has Wen¿ meinst du [cp t- daß [ip sie t¿ geküßt hat ]] ? whoniacc think you that she kissed has Wh-movement at S-structure 35 If we do not want to make the assumption that subjects can be θ-governed by V in German (unlike in English), (31-a) clearly indicates that IP is not a barrier for antecedent-government in the presence of a complementizer in German.
16") a. b. c. [ YP [γ. [χρ ... X ... ] Y ]] [YP [XP ... X ... ] [γ. Y ]] [γρ [ x p ... X ... ] [γρ ... Y ... ]] (16"-ab) represent the normal cases - in (16"-a), XP is the complement of Y, and in (16"-b), XP is the specifier of Y. Both times, YP includes (hence, does not exclude) XP. In (16"-c), on the other hand, XP is adjoined to YP. Still, YP does not exclude XP, so that the barrierhood of XP depends on the distinctness of X and Y, and not some other (higher) head. It remains to specify the conditions under which two heads are (non-) distinct.