By Mark Hanna Watkins
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Extra resources for A grammar of Chichewa, a Bantu language of British Central Africa
This will be automatically identified with the λ-abstracted argument in the semantics, since there would be no other source for its interpretation. (25) illustrates the workings of Theme externalisation more concretely. For simplicity’s sake I ignore the possibility that small clauses involve functional heads. (25) Small clause in The car seemed damaged. s e y damage(the_car)(e) & cause(s)(e) & initiator(e)(y) SC DP AP the car s x e y damage(x)(e) & cause(s)(e) & initiator(e)(y) V(P) A damage -d e damage(x)(e) s x P e y P(x)(e) & cause(s)(e) & initiator(e)(y) Are less stipulative accounts of externalization possible?
Events in adjectival passives. ), 259–273. Saarbrücken: Saarland University Press. Grimshaw, Joan. 1990. Argument Structure. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press. Haspelmath, Martin. 1994. Passive participles across languages. In Voice: Form and Function [Typological Studies in Language 27], Barbara A. Fox & Paul J. Hopper (eds), 151–177. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Kemmer, Suzanne. 1993. The Middle Voice [Typological Studies in Language 23]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Kratzer, Angelika. 2000. Building Statives.
That such participles are only used DP-internally suggests an analysis involving reduced relativisation of a verbal passive (see Sleeman for recent discussion), although (2b,c) should make us wary of appeal to DP-specific mechanisms to explain predicativeattributive contrasts like (1e) vs. (2a). Note also that preference for DP-internal use also affects prenominal participles (failed authors vs. *this author is failed; likewise for (2d)). More work is needed to understand this phenomenon and assess its relevance to the verbal-adjectival distinction.