By Wallace Chafe
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Extra resources for A Grammar of the Seneca Language
Seneca has 58 different prefix forms but six of them perform two different functions, and thus the total set of prefix functions amounts to 64. 1, with agent meanings in separate rows, patient meanings in separate columns, and transitive meanings at the intersections of the rows and columns. Those with the same form but different functions are numbered 7, 7a, 8, 8a, 20, 20a, 31, 31a, 32, 32a, and 44, 44a. 2. Neuter singular agents and patients. 1) only when it is not combined with a human patient.
2. Neuter singular agents and patients. 1) only when it is not combined with a human patient. If a human patient is also present, a neuter singular agent is not overtly marked. 1. Pronominal Prefixes (reconstructed forms) Agents No patient 12. ye-C,i yak-o yö-a yë-e 13. e,o ky-a 14. wati-C wën-V 10. hni-C hn-i,e,o hy-a 11. hati-C hën-V 15. ka-C kë-i w-a,e y-o me I us two we two us > 2 we > 2 Patients you you two you > 2 57. skni-C skn-i,e,o sky-a 58. skwa-C skwë-i skw-a,e sky-o 34. hak-V,RV,tV,hV 35.
4. Words with no accent. 1. An example is deyagodawënye:h ‘people are moving about’, literally ‘stirring’. 5. The absence of accenting on initial and final vowels. The first and last vowels of a word were exempt from word-level accenting. The trochaic pattern was established by ignoring the first vowel, and the last vowel could not belong to the first syllable of a trochee. 1). 6. Accent spreading. The loss of r and of intervocalic h often produced uninterrupted vowel sequences. If the second of two adjacent vowels was accented the accent spread backward to include both of them, as in ë́ ö́dekö:ni’ (*ëhatekhöni’) ‘he will eat’.