A Guided Tour of Relational Databases and Beyond by Mark Levene BSc, PhD, George Loizou BA, PhD (auth.)

By Mark Levene BSc, PhD, George Loizou BA, PhD (auth.)

Database conception is now in a mature nation, and this booklet addresses vital extensions of the relational database version resembling deductive, temporal and object-oriented databases. It presents an outline of database modelling with the Entity-Relationship (ER) version and the relational version supplying the pivot on which the cloth revolves. the most physique of the e-book makes a speciality of the first achievements of relational database concept, together with question languages, integrity constraints, database layout, comput capable queries and concurrency keep an eye on. an important extensions of the relational version are coated in separate chapters. This e-book should be precious to 3rd 12 months desktop technology undergraduates and postgraduates learning database thought, and also will be of curiosity to researchers and database practitioners who wish to recognize extra concerning the rules underlying relational dat abase administration structures and the issues that confront database researchers.

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An excellent introduction to ordered sets is [DP90], and a classical book on lattice theory is [Gra78j. 3 Basic Concepts of Mathematical Logic Herein we look at languages that can be used to make statements that might reasonably be viewed as true or false. The first language we consider is that of propositional calculus. The strings in this language, called formulae, stand for propositions that are either true or false. Formulae are assembled by combining atomic formulae with the aid of the logical connectives, namely negation (-,), disjunction (v), conjunction (/\), conditional (:::::}) and biconditional (<=».

26 Chapter 1. Introduction Class types in an object-oriented database specify the object type of the objects in its class and also the set of operations (also known as methods) that can be performed on objects in the class. For example, an EMPLOYEE class type will contain an object type, say EMPLOYEE_SCHEMA, and a set of operations on employees such as print employee details, retrieve salary and raise salary. Both the object type and the operations are stored (or encapsulated) in the database. Each operation has an interface and an implementation.

Then CNAME and TNAME are foreign keys which reference COURSE~AME in COURSE and TEACHER~AME in TEACHER, respectively. 4 Anested relation (CNAME I NO - HOURS)* 15 Expert Syst Databases 15 Prolog 15 Software Eng 10 Databases 20 Prolog 15 20 Databases 25 Graph Theory II The nested relational algebra extends the (flat) relational algebra to nested relations by providing two additional restructuring operators, called NEST and UNNEST. NEST transforms a nested relation into a "more deeply" nested relation and UNNEST transforms a nested relation into a "flatter" nested relation.

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