A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and

By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Commission on Physical Sciences, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics

Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, area stories Board, Board on Physics and Astronomy, arithmetic, and functions fee on actual Sciences, department on Engineering and actual Sciences, nationwide study Council

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7. Measuring the density and spatial distribution of old, inactive neutron stars and various types of pulsars. Only a small fraction of neutron stars are active as pulsars or accreting binary systems. Neutron stars are likely to emit an observable fraction of their luminosity as cyclotron emission, thus allowing a measurement of the magnetic field on old pulsars. A large number of pulsars in our galaxy may be strong gamma-ray emitters rather than strong radio emitters; an important task is to determine the number of active isolated pulsars, the population of gamma-ray pulsars, and the fraction of these that are not powerful radio emitters.

The discovery of spots on evolved luminous stars would be strong evidence for the presence of magnetic fields that are a possible source of heating and momentum deposition in the outer atmospheres, perhaps providing the energy for a stellar wind. A combination of extreme ultraviolet, ultraviolet, and infrared imaging and spectroscopy is the relevant set of techniques to advance such studies. 3. Determining the temperature, density, and velocity of the emitting areas on white dwarfs. Advances in the understanding of white dwarf binary systems in the next decade will come from increasing spectral resolution in the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray bands.

Advances in the understanding of white dwarf binary systems in the next decade will come from increasing spectral resolution in the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray bands. Increased angular resolution at high energies will enable the identification of optical counterparts for both isolated white dwarfs and those accreting from binary companions. The ultimate goal of observations at longer wavelengths is to directly resolve the accretion areas in disk and in magnetic systems. The most useful observations will involve large-collecting-area, high-resolution x-ray and extremeultraviolet spectrographs.

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