By Alessandro Boselli
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–13):
Chapter 2 X?Ray (pages 17–23):
Chapter three UV?Optical?NIR (pages 25–40):
Chapter four The Infrared (pages 41–49):
Chapter five Millimeter and Centimeter Radio (pages 51–57):
Chapter 6 houses of the new X?Ray Emitting fuel (pages 61–62):
Chapter 7 dirt homes (pages 63–69):
Chapter eight Radio houses (pages 71–75):
Chapter nine The Spectral power Distribution (pages 77–90):
Chapter 10 Spectral beneficial properties (pages 91–106):
Chapter eleven gasoline homes (pages 107–123):
Chapter 12 airborne dirt and dust Extinction (pages 125–142):
Chapter thirteen superstar Formation Tracers (pages 143–159):
Chapter 14 gentle Profiles and Structural Parameters (pages 161–170):
Chapter 15 Stellar and Dynamical lots (pages 171–191):
Chapter sixteen Statistical instruments (pages 195–213):
Chapter 17 Scaling kinfolk (pages 215–233):
Chapter 18 subject Cycle in Galaxies (pages 235–243):
Chapter 19 The function of our surroundings on Galaxy Evolution (pages 245–254):
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Additional info for A Panchromatic View of Galaxies
The solid line indicates main sequence stars (MS), the dotted line the sub giant branch (SGB), the short dashed line red giant branch (RGB), the long-dashed line the horizontal branch (HB), and the dot-dashed line the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Reproduced with the permission of John Wiley & Sons Ltd. as the ground level itself, and thus radiative transitions are forbidden by the parity selection rule . Line emission can also be generated within planetary nebulae, isolated symmetric objects formed by the gas expelled by an old star previous to its transformation into a white dwarf.
1, where the temperature of dust grains of different sizes is plotted as a function of the mean time between absorption of successive photons from the general interstellar radiation ﬁeld. Very small grains and PAHs are thus not in thermal equilibrium with the interstellar radiation ﬁeld and cannot be represented with a simple modiﬁed black body. 2 Emission Lines The infrared spectral domain of extragalactic sources is characterized by the presence of several atomic and molecular emission lines that are fundamental to the study of the physics of the ISM and the process of star formation.
The newly formed stars inject metals and energy via UV radiation into the ISM, determining its physical conditions. The heating and cooling of the gas is predominantly regulated in neutral regions of the 45 46 4 The Infrared ISM, generally called photodissociation regions (PDR), from which comes most of the CO emission of galaxies . The heating and cooling of the gaseous phase of the ISM occurs via kinetic energy transfer from and to atoms, molecules, and ions of the interstellar gas. As extensively described in , the principal heating process starts with the removal of an electron from an atom or a dust grain of the ISM.