By Malcolm Offord
A pupil Grammar of French is a concise creation to French grammar, designed in particular for English-speaking undergraduates. protecting technical aspect to a minimal, it explains the basics of the grammar in obtainable and easy phrases, and is helping scholars to place their studying into perform via a number enjoyable and fascinating workouts. all of the crucial themes are coated, with chapters on verbs, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, adverbs, negation, numerals, sentences, and clauses. each grammatical element is illustrated with quite a number actual examples drawn from magazines and newspapers, protecting many parts of up to date lifestyles resembling style, future health concerns, relationships and game. it really is basically geared up right into a basic, numbered indexing procedure, permitting the learner to quick and simply find any grammatical subject. Functioning either as an fundamental reference consultant and a accomplished workbook, this grammar turns into the best accompaniment to any first or moment yr undergraduate path.
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Extra resources for A Student Grammar of French
25 A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR 64 Verbs conjugated with etre ˆ and agreement In the case of these verbs, agreement between the past participle and the subject is compulsory – if the subject is feminine, an –e is added to the participle; if the subject is plural, an –s is added, if the subject is masculine or is used generically; an –es is added if the subject is feminine plural. Examples Lorsqu’elle est entr´ee, je me suis dit que c’´etait ma chance = when she came in, I said to myself, now’s my chance Elle est devenue un objet de d´esir = she became an object of desire Ses deux fils sont venus me demander du conseil = his two sons came and asked me for advice Il y a des hommes qui ne sont pas sortis de l’enfance, mˆeme s’ils portent des costumes = there are some men who have not left childhood, even if they wear suits J’ai rencontr´e beaucoup de filles qui sont tomb´ees amoureuses au moins une fois par mois = I’ve met lots of girls who fell in love at least once a month Comprenant qu’il y avait une lueur d’espoir, elles sont revenues au centre chaque jour = realising that there was a glimmer of hope, they came back to the centre every day In the case of vous, an –s or –es is added only if the reference is to a plural subject; if vous refers to a singular subject, then no extra ending is added, unless a feminine subject is involved – thus masculine singular Apr`es cette aventure, vous eˆ tes sagement rentr´e aupr`es de votre femme et vous eˆ tes enfin devenu raisonnable = after this escapade, you returned quietly to your wife and at last became sensible masculine plural Vous avez port´e des pantalons a` pattes d’´el´ephant – vous vous eˆ tes moqu´es ˆ = you wore flares – you didn’t care about good taste du bon gout feminine singular Peut-ˆetre avez-vous eu un parent exigeant – face a` lui vous vous eˆ tes sentie impuissante et vuln´erable = perhaps you had a demanding parent – confronted by him or her you felt powerless and vulnerable Vous eˆ tes rest´ee sans nouvelles de lui, et puis le beau garc¸on a` qui vous aviez donn´e vos coordonn´ees vous contacte = you hadn’t had any news from him, and then the handsome guy you’d given your details to contacts you feminine plural Mesdemoiselles, il faut faire attention au web cam´era qui vous permet d’ˆetre film´ees et vues sur l’´ecran de votre patron = girls, you must beware of the web-cam which allows you to be filmed and seen on screen by your boss 26 67 Perfect tense of Group 1–4 verbs Si vous fumez ou eˆ tes entour´ees de fumeurs, vous risquez de vous pr´eparer une cinquantaine p´enible = if you smoke or are surrounded by smokers, you’re in danger of preparing a very uncomfortable scenario for yourself at fifty 65 Verbs which may be conjugated with either avoir or etre ˆ 1 Some of the verbs listed in 63 may be used transitively as well as intransitively.
Aller is an –er verb that shows major deviations from the norm. For further details see the appropriate sections below. 18 –er verbs Subgroup 1 Verbs ending in –eler and –eter: there are two possibilities – 1 some verbs double the final consonant of the stem in the persons mentioned above; 2 others change the unstressed e of the stem to e` . Examples of Subgroup 1 1 doubling the final consonant of the stem in singular and third person plural – appeler = to call j’appelle, tu appelles, il/elle/on appelle, ils/elles appellent 9 A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR but nous appelons, vous appelez jeter = to throw je jette, tu jettes, il/elle/on jette, ils/elles jettent but nous jetons, vous jetez 2 changing –e– of stem to –`e– acheter = to buy j’ach`ete, tu ach`etes, il/elle/on ach`ete, ils/elles ach`etent but nous achetons, vous achetez 19 –er verbs Subgroup 2 Verbs, with –e– (apart from those in Subgroup 1) or –´e– as the final vowel of the stem – the –e– or –´e– is changed to –`e– in the persons mentioned above.
The treatment of the final consonant of the stem should be noted – 1 when the stem ends in –r–, the –r– is retained throughout the paradigm 2 when the stem ends in –t–, the –t– does not appear in the written form of the first two persons singular 3 when the stem ends in another consonant, the consonant does not appear in the singular but reappears in the plural. Examples of Subgroup 2 1 courir = to run singular first person cour–s second person cour–s third person cour–t plural cour–ons cour–ez cour–ent 2 partir = to leave je pars, tu pars, il/elle/on part nous partons, vous partez, ils/elles partent 3 dormir = to sleep je dors, tu dors, il/elle/on dort nous dormons, vous dormez, ils/elles dorment 11 A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR 26 –ir verbs Subgroup 3 Certain verbs whose infinitive ends in –ir are in fact conjugated like Group 1 –er verbs.