By Claude Boyd, Aaron McNevin
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Freshwater has salinity less than 1 g/L while ocean water has salinity around 35 g/L. Brackishwater is intermediate in salinity between freshwater and ocean water. Inland waters— especially in arid regions—may be brackish with salinities as high as 5–10 g/L. In extremely arid regions, some inland waters and waters in estuaries with low exchange rates with the ocean may be hypersaline with salinities above 40 g/L. At some sites, there are seasonal differences in salinity that influence selection of culture species.
Soderberg, R. W. 1994. Flowing Water Fish Culture. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Stickney, R. R. 2000. History of aquaculture. In R. R. Stickney, editor, Encyclopedia of Aquaculture, pp. 436–446. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Timmons, M. , J. M. Ebeling, F. W. Wheaton, S. T. Summerfelt, and B. J. Vinci. 2001. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems. Ithaca: Cayuga Aquaculture Ventures. Verdegem, M. C. J. and R. H. Bosma. 2009. Water withdrawal for brackish and inland aquaculture, and options to produce more fish in ponds with present water use.
9 A trout raceway in the United States. in series are probably the most common flow-through culture units (Fig. 9), but small, earthen ponds, tanks, or other units also may be used. Water typically is exchanged at a rate of two or three times the volume of culture units per hour by gravity flow and discharged from the lowermost culture unit into natural water bodies. Re-aeration occurs where water falls from the end of one culture unit into the beginning of the next, and mechanical aerators or pure oxygen contact systems can be installed to supplement the dissolved oxygen supply.