By Carl Sagan
Within the ultimate e-book of his spectacular occupation, Carl Sagan brilliantly examines the burning questions of our lives, our international, and the universe round us. those luminous, pleasing essays trip either the vastness of the cosmos and the intimacy of the human brain, posing such interesting questions as how did the universe originate and the way will it finish, and the way will we meld technological know-how and compassion to satisfy the demanding situations of the arrival century? right here, too, is an extraordinary, deepest glimpse of Sagan's ideas approximately love, loss of life, and God as he struggled with deadly sickness. Ever forward-looking and colourful with the flicker of his unquenchable interest, Billions & Billions is a testomony to 1 of the nice medical minds of our day.
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Extra resources for Billions & Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium
Kosberg, liquid-propellant rocket engines development for planes was started, at first on a monopropellant (isopropylnitrate), and since 1956 on a bipropellant (oxygen-kerosene). Since 1958 the cryogenic and high temperature propellant engines of this experimental design office has been widely adopted for upper stages of many launch-vehicles and in other rockets. The development of liquid propellant rocket engines in the USSR went its own original way and was based on the work of these three experimental design offices together with research and development institutes and plants.
They were de signed for some rockets, a sea-gliding torpedo and an airplane (Figs. 3 and 4). During 10 starts a sample of the ORM-50 amassed a total operating time of 314 sec and remained sound. A sample of the ORM-52 clocked up 533 sec of operating time during 29 starts and kept operation capacity. Fig. 3. ), automatic and semi-automatic starting (Fig. 5). It passed official tests in 1936. The ORM-65 Nl during 49 starts on a bench, the RP-318 rocket glider and 212 winged rocket designed by S.
Developed chemical and pyrotechnical ignition, centrifugal injectors, spiral finned nozzle dynamically cooled by a propellant component, internal cooling of combustion chamber walls by a propellant screen, selected construction ma terials, made it possible to get multiple operation of the engine at chamber pressures of 20—25 atm abs. and a specific impulse of 200—210 sec, on the storable nitric acid-kerosene propellant. For example we can mention the ORM-50 engine with thrust of 150 kg, and the ORM-52 with thrust of 300 kg which in 1933 passed official tests in presence of the customer.