By Daniel Grosch (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Biological Effects of Radiations
CHAPTER 3 Cytosomal Effects and Cell Division Microscopic examination of heavily irradiated cells gave early investigators some evidence of visible change. The vacuolization of cytoplasm and an intracellular accumulation of released fat are cytoplasmic changes which became well known to morphologists. Heilbrunn and Mazia (1936), Ellinger (1941, 1949), and Kimball (1955) provide a number of references. However, marked changes in physiology may not necessarily be reflected in the microscopic appearance of the cell.
Periodic sampling of the culture after inhibitory treatment provides data which reflects the time limits during which the sensitive biochemical events are vulnerable. The transition period for the x-ray-induced G 2 block is identified as the point beyond which cells are not delayed by irradiation. This point, late in G 2 , moved closer to mitosis as the radiation dose was increased. Hypothetically this corresponds to the time of completion of the final assembly of the protein structure essential for division.
1955). Furthermore, the stainability of nuclear contents in animal and plant cells was not altered as expected with depolymerization (Himes, 1950; Kaufmann-, 1954). , 1951). Once considered a test for depolymerization, the affinity for methyl green may be a measure of protein association with DNA. An intranuclear change in this relationship would have to occur to increase the availability of more dyebinding sites in the DNA. From subsequent studies of gels formed from isolated nuclei, Dounce (1971) concluded that a major cause of gel instability is a loss of firm binding of the DNA to residual protein.