By Murray E. Fowler, Zalmir S. Cubas
Univ. of California, Davis. gains wide tables, continent-specific department of amphibians, birds, reptiles, and mammals prepared by way of order, relations, and genus. issues contain conservation efforts, ailments in free-ranging populations, and administration of animals maintained in captivity. comprises an appendix on drug dosages utilized in avian medication. ample halftone illustrations.
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1987. Modern turtle origins: The oldest known cryptodire. Science 237:289–291. W. 1994. The most ancient African turtle. Nature 369:55-58. H. 1987. Ultraviolet irradiances of various lamps used in animal husbandry. Zoo Biology 6(2):117–127. H. 1994. Light requirements of captive amphibians and reptiles. B. Murphy, K. T. , Captive Management and Conservation of Amphibians and Reptiles. Ithaca, New York, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, pp. 53–59. W. 1990. Turtle studies at SREL: A research perspective.
The opening may be blocked with a sponge or one of the limbs may be held outside the shell to avoid closure of the trap door on the handlers fingers. ) may bite or claw severely, especially those with long necks that can be extended backward or laterally and that have long sharp nails. Small individuals may be handled from the back by placing a finger in the inguinal fosse. For larger animals it is necessary to use gloves or to allow them to bite on an object to extend the head. Special care should be taken with the snapping turtle (Chelydra sepentina) because the jaws are hooked and prominent, and they may bite suddenly, inflicting severe lacerations or crushing injuries.
2,18,23 Naturally designed exhibits are best to provide environmental enrichment for turtles and tortoises. Edible vegetation planted inside the exhibit may stimulate foraging behavior. 18,19 Geochelone carbonaria and G. denticulata may spend a great deal of time grazing and are particularly fond of Paspalum notatum grass. Mixed exhibits are an interesting option for environmental education and enrichment. Many species of freshwater turtles may be kept together. At São Paulo Zoo (Brazil), the following species have been housed together: Trachemys dorbignyi and Phrynops geoffroanus; Podocnemis expansa and P.