Biothermodynamics : The Role of Thermodynamics in by Urs von Stockar, Luuk A. M. van der Wielen

By Urs von Stockar, Luuk A. M. van der Wielen

This ebook covers the basics of the quickly growing to be box of biothermodynamics, displaying how thermodynamics can top be utilized to purposes and procedures in biochemical engineering. It describes the rigorous software of thermodynamics in biochemical engineering to rationalize bioprocess improvement and obviate a considerable fraction of this want for tedious experimental paintings. As such, this booklet will entice a various crew of readers, starting from scholars and professors in biochemical engineering, to scientists and engineers, for whom will probably be a worthy reference.

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Putting Eq. 4) ∼ is called the electrochemical potential. Equation (4) contains a non-electrostatic and m i (µi) and electrostatic contributions (zi F ψi) to the electrochemical potential of the charged species i. 2â•… Equilibrium conditions Consider two phases (α and β) at a given temperature and pressure. At equilibrium the Gibbs energy change is zero (dG = 0) and the number of species i emitted by phase α and absorbed by phase β has to be equal (dniα = − dniβ). Thus, an equation Eq. 6) For any uncharged species (zi = 0), the equilibrium condition (Eq.

105 UNIFAC KpenG 104 103 102 101 exp. 3 4 5 # C atoms Fig. 2╇Experimental partition coefficients (no units) for penicillin G (KpenG) [5] and those predicted using UNIFAC as a function of the number of carbon (C) atoms in the alkyl chain of alkylacetate esters (reproduced from reference 2). indb 7 4/22/2013 11:31:05 AM 8 Biothermodynamics This implies that design and optimization for these and even more complex processes have to follow the laborious and costly empirical route, rather than use of computer-aided flowsheeting programs for the evaluation of alternatives.

85419 10-12 C╃V-1 m-1) and the relative permittivity of the medium, respectively. The permittivity of the medium, ε, is the product of ε0 and εr. If zi and zj are of like sign, the force is repulsive and work is required to bring them together. If zi and zj are of unlike sign, the force is attractive and work is required to separate them. The work to move an anion j away from a cation i to a distance r is described by Eq. 12) Here the ions are considered as point charges. In classical electromagnetism, the electric potential (also called the electrostatic potential) at a point in space ( ψid ) is the i (r ) electric potential energy divided by the charge associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field (Eq.

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