Bourgeoisie, State and Democracy: Russia, Britain, France, by Graeme Gill

By Graeme Gill

One of many key questions in social technological know-how is the function of the bourgeoisie in making a democracy. a big factor in modern overseas politics is the trajectory of the present Russian political approach. This booklet brings those questions jointly via exploring the function performed via the bourgeoisie in shaping political results in 5 international locations: modern Russia, commercial revolution Britain, France, Germany and the us. Its major concentration is the best way the several new enterprise sessions were built-in into the political process, and the consequences this had for the political trajectories of the respective international locations. The modern Russian event is thrown into reduction by way of comparability with the nationwide reviews of the opposite 4 international locations, permitting conclusions to be drawn approximately either the overall query of the ancient function of this classification in democratization and the extra particular query of its function in Russia this day.

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What is it that enabled the new class to become integrated into the existing structure while avoiding a direct and open clash with the prevailing dominant class of traditional landowners? Important in this process is the ability of the new class to gain a degree of social integration with the dominant class in the pre-industrial structure. 21 The Making of a Social Class: The Western Bourgeoisie The social origins of the new bourgeoisie are relevant here. If that bourgeoisie stems, as it did, from within existing productive groups, it may appear less as a new or alien force in society than as a simple extension of an existing social formation.

Historically the development of the new class has been propelled by the way in which new technologies of production are taken up by sections of the old class, and in so doing they create a dynamic which produces new means of economic production and a new set of social relations. Reflected in changed structures in the workplace, a developing consciousness of collective (class) identity, and new sets of relations with other class groups, this development transforms the existing class structure. But this transformation stems from the existing classes; the people who come to constitute the emergent class come from families which are embedded in existing classes.

There was a logic to the emergence of the industrial capitalists from the small-scale entrepreneurs of the pre-capitalist era, in that largescale industrialisation involved the pursuit of similar sorts of activities as earlier, only at a significantly higher level, viz. the transformation of smallscale industrial activity into large-scale industrial activity, mainly through the introduction of new technologies and means of organising production. But it was still industrial production, not the transfer from one sort of economic activity, such as agriculture, to another.

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