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Socratic Studies (Cambridge, 1994), 1–33); useful general studies are R. W. ’ Frage in Laches, Charmides, Der gr•o¢ere Hippias und Euthyphron (Munich and Freiburg, 1983); A. Longo, La tecnica della domanda e le interrogazioni ﬁttizie in Platone (Pisa, 2000), 3–140; and Giannantoni, Dialogo socratico, 141–95. 42 Francesco Fronterotta courage truly be conceived as an ‘endurance of the soul combined with the faculty of judging’, since one can quote an endless number of other situations in which this deﬁnition is manifestly found wanting.
If so, this evidence would provide even stronger support for my main point, namely the intimate association of Socrates’ ethical doctrines with Apollo. Socrates’ Profession of Ignorance 31 looks for someone with wisdom to whom he might point in order to refute it in its apparent sense, he ﬁnds that those who at ﬁrst seemed wise are in fact not, and he proves this on each occasion by refuting them—especially, by asking them for the meaning of the terms they use and then refuting the deﬁnitions which they give in response, thereby showing that they do not even understand their own claims.
5) At Chrm. e. ). Since the maxim was traditionally interpreted as a warning that men should know and keep to their lowly place in relation to the gods, one can readily understand that Socrates must have interpreted its message as similar to that of the oracle given to Chaerephon: that, god alone being truly wise, human beings’ wisdom is of little or no value (Ap. 23 a). And one can readily understand that, just as Socrates saw his refuting activity as standing in the service of demonstrating and disseminating this oracular message (23 b), so he must have seen it as standing in the service of demonstrating and disseminating the message of the maxim.