Case Valency And Transitivity by Leonid Kulikov, Andrej Malchukov, Peter de Swart

By Leonid Kulikov, Andrej Malchukov, Peter de Swart

The 3 thoughts of case, valency and transitivity belong to the main mentioned issues of recent linguistics. at the one hand, they're crucially hooked up with morphological elements of the clause, together with case marking, individual contract and voice. nevertheless, they're relating to a number of semantic matters akin to the that means of case, semantico-syntactic verbal periods, and the semantic correlates of transitivity. the amount unifies papers written inside assorted theoretical frameworks and representing variegated techniques (Optimality conception, govt and Binding, a variety of types of the useful procedure, Cross-linguistic and Typological analyses), containing either a variety of new findings in person languages and priceless observations and generalizations relating to case, valency and transitivity.

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And hardly requires a long discussion. It will suffice to give a few examples of the rise of new cases, illustrating the mechanism in question by the evolution of the Indo-Aryan case systems and by the history of locative cases in (Old) Lithuanian. 1 New Indo-Aryan languages: new cases from postpositional phrases and nominal compounds By the end of the Middle Indo-Aryan (mia) period, that is, at the turn of the 2nd millennium ad, the Indo-Aryan languages have lost most of the cases of the original Sanskrit, or Old Indo-Aryan (oia), system of eight cases3 (which, except for minor details, is nearly identical to the case system reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European).

However, since morphological form is just that, morphological form, there is nothing to prevent us from doing this. Let’s assume then that the [m-case: dative] feature itself has two subfeatures: [m-case: dative [{1, 2}]]. This enriched feature representation labels a dative1 and a dative2 case. Where there is free variation between the two forms we can assume that the mapping rules appeal solely to the (underspecified) attribute-value pair [m-case: dative]. However, we also need to define a mapping from the linearized phrase structure representation telling us how to inflect the components of a multiword noun phrase marked [s-case: dative].

Syntactic vs. morphological case Adjectives inflect in two ways, showing the so-called ‘weak inflection’ after definite determiners, and the so-called ‘strong inflection’ in most other cases (there is also a ‘mixed inflection’). I shall not discuss adjectival inflection in this paper. As far as I can tell the ‘strong/weak’ declension property is essentially orthogonal to the specific claims being advanced here about case assignment. 1 Morphological forms For the determiners and adjectives, which reflect syntactic cases, numbers and genders in a reasonably transparent fashion, we can assume the standard paradigm structure, with four m-cases and two m-numbers in simple correspondence with syntactic case/number features.

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