By J. Bevan Ott

Chemical Thermodynamics: complex purposes extends the knowledge of thermodynamics built in ideas and functions. The publication covers the "middle floor" among the elemental ideas constructed inPrinciples and functions and the very really expert purposes which are part of an ongoing study venture.

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**Extra resources for Chemical Thermodynamics: Advanced Applications**

**Example text**

120) r, ' Over extended temperature ranges, Ar//° is expressed as a function of temperature by integrating the equation expressing ArC^, the heat capacity change for the reaction as a function of temperature. The result is Ari/° = A//i + O , ^i^i \ T + - T i^"').. 121) where A//i is a constant of integration, and a^ bj, c,-, and

Thus, our quantitative calculation is only approximate, but the qualitative interpretation is valid, since the effect in a real solution will not differ greatly (certainly not orders of magnitude) from that in the ideal solution. 21) only approximates the behavior. Significant concentration gradients could also result for large molecular weight solutes such as polymers or polypeptides. A better approach to produce a significant concentration gradient in a solution involves increasing the force by substituting a centrifugal field for a gravitational field, an effect that we will now consider.

101) applies so that ArG = 0 and ArG" = ~ / ? 102) with K, the thermodynamic equilibrium constant, equal to K= JJaf. 103) are now the equilibrium activities. 104) where// is the fugacity, expressed in bars with the usual choice of standard states. 106) 26 Chemical Thermodynamics: Advanced AppHcations and K,= ]l[x^. / is the partial pressure, c/ is the molar concentration, and x, is the mole fraction. 110) Alternate expressions can be written for reactions involving condensed phases. 112) through the relationship ^= = .