CMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers: by Dominic Maurath

By Dominic Maurath

Chip-integrated energy administration options are a needs to for ultra-low energy platforms. this permits not just the optimization of leading edge sensor purposes. it's also crucial for integration and miniaturization of strength harvesting provide recommendations of transportable and self reliant tracking systems.

The booklet quite addresses interfaces for strength harvesting, that are the major point to attach micro transducers to strength garage components. major beneficial properties of the ebook are:

- A finished know-how and alertness assessment, fundamentals on transducer mechanics, basic circuit and regulate layout, prototyping and trying out, as much as sensor method offer and applications.

- Novel interfacing thoughts - together with energetic rectifiers, MPPT equipment for effective monitoring of DC in addition to AC assets, and a fully-integrated cost pump for effective greatest AC strength monitoring at sub-100µW ultra-low strength degrees. The chips in attaining considered one of widest offered operational voltage variety in average CMOS know-how: 0.44V to over 4.1V.

- designated chapters on analog circuit layout – it stories advantages and stumbling blocks on carried out chip prototypes with 3 ambitions: extremely- low strength, huge offer voltage diversity, and integration with common applied sciences. substitute layout techniques are pursued utilizing bulk-input transistor levels in forward-bias operation for amplifiers, modulators, and references.

- accomplished Appendix – with extra primary research, layout and scaling directions, circuit implementation tables and dimensions, schematics, resource code listings, invoice of fabric, etc.

The mentioned prototypes and given layout guidance are proven with genuine vibration transducer units. The meant readership is graduate scholars in complicated classes, lecturers and teachers, R&D engineers.

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Extra info for CMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers: Interfaces for Ultra-Low Voltage Energy Harvesting

Example text

This allows low-speed adjustment of the optimal buffer voltage levels if the amplitude of a sinusoid transducer waveform changes. 5 V [158]. In case of ideal sinusoidal excitation, this allows slow adjustment of the buffer voltage level for improved transducer loading. However, as transducer excitation is often a non-sinusoid waveform the optimum level of the blocking capacitor’s voltage will alter. This seems difficult to determine and to adjust, and is not shown by now. In addition, the interruption of harvesting will reduce the total extractable power.

1), the supply layer and the power management is much different from battery-only systems, as illustrated in Fig. 4. Hence, when aiming for an energy harvesting based supply three basic issues appear: (i) the load-dependent characteristic of the transducer—requires appropriate interfacing (MPPT), (ii) the intermittent power supply by the transducer, and (iii) the variable buffer voltage used as the main supply—both require energy-aware functionality and supply independent circuits. For these reasons, the supply layer has an extended complexity when using EHsources.

In case of sufficient ambient energy, as indicated by a threshold voltage detector, the battery is switched off and the system operates only on harvested power. This is in contrast to previous designs that only connect the solar panel either directly to a storage capacitor or battery though a passive diode [106]. 3 Innovation—Efficient Energy-Aware Operation 17 In 2006, Simjee et al. [107] presents a system which uses a super-capacitor instead of a battery for reasons of a longer life time due to almost unlimited re-charge cycles.

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