By Adeline Patard, Frank Brisard
This quantity addresses difficulties of semantics in regards to the research of demanding and element (TA) markers in various languages, together with Arabic, Croatian, English, French, German, Russian, Thai, and Turkish. Its major curiosity is going out to epistemic makes use of of such markers, wherein epistemic modality is known as indicating “a measure of compatibility among the modal international and the genuine international” (Declerck). All contributions, furthermore, take on those difficulties from a roughly cognitive standpoint, with a few of them insisting at the have to supply a unifying cause of all utilization varieties, temporal and non-temporal, and them all accepting the basis that the semantics of TA different types basically refers to subjective, instead of goal, issues. the amount additionally represents one of many first makes an attempt to collect debts of TA marking (in quite a few languages) which are explicitly set in the framework of Cognitive Grammar. finally, this quantity goals to give a contribution to developing an wisdom that modal which means parts are without delay correct to the research of the grammar of time.
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Extra info for Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality
Lyons, John. 1977. Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, & Jan Svartvik. 1985, A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, London: Longman. The English present Temporal coincidence vs. epistemic immediacy Ronald W. Langacker University of California at San Diego Two accounts of the English present are outlined and compared: one that treats it as tense, indicating coincidence with the time of speaking; and one that treats it as modality, indicating epistemic immediacy.
Set-identifying conditional clause) (35) If he noticed Brand, he didn’t comment. e. the function of the conditional clause is to anchor the head clause into the ongoing discourse) In none of these examples is there an assumption or presupposition on the part of the speaker that the supposition is treated as true, untrue, unlikely to be true, or as a real possibility. There is no specified epistemic relation (=relation in terms of a factuality value) between the suppositional modal world and the factual world.
Thus, in I might have been killed if I had not given in the modal suppositional world (created by if) is grounded in the modal epistemic world (created by might) comprising theoretically possible actualizations: the sentence means ‘It is possible that I would have been killed if I had not given in’. Note that this example shows that grounding is a different phenomenon from anchoring, which is a question of the temporal relation between two worlds The definition of modality – see Section 2(b) above – although the time to which a grounded t-world is anchored is usually also the time to which the grounding t-world is anchored.