Collins Gem SAS Survival Guide by John 'Lofty' Wiseman

By John 'Lofty' Wiseman

No matter if misplaced on a mountain, trapped on your automobile through a snow fall or stranded in a wasteland, this ebook is designed because the excellent consultant to survival. Written by means of one of many SAS' top survival specialists, this ebook contains life-saving suggestions and data on matters comparable to camp craft, what to devour and the way to procure it, first reduction and protecting fit, relocating via assorted terrain and signalling for rescue and surviving particular eventualities.

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This is actually CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) GHG, including CO2, N2O and CH4, emitted during fuel production. However, it does not include non-CO2 GHG emissions from vehicles, which can be significant for some types, such as aircraft. This convention is used throughout this report. In many places, CO2-eq is shortened to CO2 for simplicity. indd 43 1/10/09 11:59:50 CHAPTER 1 TRANSPORT TRENDS AND FUTURE SCENARIOS 44 u The reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions in 2050 in the BLUE Map/Shifts scenario occur world wide, reflecting more sustainable and efficient travel in all regions.

But a transition is needed to much more sustainable feedstocks and approaches to biofuels production. As sustainability criteria and rating systems emerge, policies need to shift toward incentivising the most sustainable, low-GHG, and cost-efficient biofuels while minimising impacts from land-use change. A transition to second-generation fuels from non-food feedstocks will play a key role. This is particularly true in OECD countries, as their current biofuels production is dominated by ethanol from grain crops and biodiesel from oil-seed crops.

This is fully applied for passenger LDVs and, as of 2009, for light, medium and heavy trucks. For other modes, a simplified version of the ASIF methodology is applied. This approach is based on: æ Stock (total stock of vehicles by type and region). æ Travel (average travel per vehicle by type and region). æ Fuel consumption (average fuel use per kilometre by vehicle type and region). æ Energy use (derived as the product of the first three). indd 48 1/10/09 11:59:53 CHAPTER 1 TRANSPORT TRENDS AND FUTURE SCENARIOS 49 The results are then checked against IEA energy use statistics to ensure that the identity is solved correctly for each region.

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