Concreteness in Generative Phonology: Evidence from French by Bernard Tranel

By Bernard Tranel

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Aux-to-Comp rule, with the participle here moving left in the way the Aux does in the cases he discusses, and that the object NP itself moves into subject position: (49) conosciuta [IP me{ AGR; [VP [v e] [e];]] The participle must assign case from its derived position to the NP in subject position (in order to respect (20) above). 7. Conclusion Various Romance languages, to varying degrees, have constructions in which it appears that a past participle is agreeing with its object NP. We have argued that all such cases should be interpreted otherwise: The past participle never agrees directly with an NP in object position.

19. If Chomsky (1986a, 6) is correct, then the IP complement of the tense auxiliary must not be an argument. 20. Spanish has 'Juan tiene escrita la carta', but that seems clearly related to its also having 'Juan tiene la carta escrita', which calls for case assignment from 'tener' to the smallclause subject (cf. , we have been concentrating on. Case assignment from 'avere' could conceivably be available in the literary Italian that allows (45). 21. The Occitan described by Miremont requires that Wh-movement be unable to apply to (the structure corresponding to) (45), presumably because 'le ragazze' there is not in an A-position.

ECM Ruwet (1982, 150) has observed an interesting contrast between the following two constructions: (37) une femme qu'on a dit belle ('a woman that one has said beautiful') (38) une femme qu'on a dit ne pas etre belle ('. . neg. not to-be . ') Example (37) is an instance of Wh-movement applied to the subject of a small clause embedded under 'dire', and (38) an example of the same except that the small clause is replaced by an infinitive. une femme qu'on a dite ne pas etre belle The relevant substructure of (39) is 'Whj NP a [IP [e]j [,P AGRj dite [[e]j belle]]] in which the second [e]; is governed by the participle across the small-clause boundary.

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