By Pamela Elizabeth Clark
Whereas traditional maps could be expressed as outward-expanding formulae with well-defined valuable gains and comparatively poorly outlined edges, consistent Scale usual Boundary (CSNB) maps have well-defined limitations that outcome from typical methods and therefore enable spatial and dynamic relationships to be saw in a brand new approach necessary to realizing those approaches. CSNB mapping provides a brand new method of visualization that produces maps markedly assorted from these produced by means of traditional cartographic equipment.
In this strategy, any physique might be represented via a 3D coordinate procedure. For a standard physique, with its floor rather tender at the scale of its dimension, destinations of good points could be represented via yes geographic grid (latitude and longitude) and elevation, or deviation from the triaxial ellipsoid outlined floor. a continual floor in this physique could be segmented, its certain nearby terranes enclosed, and their inter-relationships outlined, through the use of chosen morphologically identifiable aid gains (e.g., continental divides, plate limitations, river or present systems). during this method, areas of contrast on a wide, primarily round physique might be mapped as two-dimensional ‘facets’ with their barriers representing local to global-scale asymmetries (e.g., continental crust, continental and oceanic crust on this planet, farside unique thicker crust and nearside thinner influence punctuated crust at the Moon). In a similar demeanour, an abnormal item similar to an asteroid, with a floor that's tough at the scale of its measurement, will be logically segmented alongside edges of its impact-generated faces.
Bounded faces are imagined with hinges at occasional issues alongside limitations, leading to a foldable ‘shape model.’ hence, bounded faces develop organically out of the main compelling typical good points. seen barriers regulate the map’s extremities, and peripheral areas are usually not dismembered or grossly distorted as in traditional map projections. 2nd maps and 3D versions develop out of an object’s most evident face or terrane ‘edges,’ rather than arbitrarily by way of enforcing a typical grid procedure or utilizing usually formed features to symbolize an abnormal surface.
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Extra info for Constant-Scale Natural Boundary Mapping to Reveal Global and Cosmic Processes
2 Making a closed shape (using map in Fig. 3 Adjusting Internal Scale 31 Fig. 3 Adjusting internal proportions (using map in Fig. 1) as described in text. Clark (2004b) with help of René De Hon 32 2 Constant-Scale Natural Boundary Mapping Technique methods of geometry attributed first to the mapmaker Ptolemy (Sidoli and Berggren 2007) orthographic and stereographic projection (Fig. 4a). In an orthographic projection, the scale varies as smoothly as on a conventional map. Continents and oceans are both reduced evenly in size from their global dimensions.
This strategy kept area and shape distortion to a minimum. 2. To maximize enclosed area. , Fig. 7a. (Also seen in Fig. 5 discussed in Sect. ) Tracking only hinge-arcs inevitably created skewing in the reconstituted shape. Hinges must be set at a collective optimum, which exists, and may be found by correlating lengths across the flat shape with corresponding lengths on the object’s spherical or irregular surface. If we, as Dürer, were mapping polyhedrons, we would make map lengths equal to corresponding object lengths (shown in Sect.
6). A succession of bordering lines may locate points in a map’s field by organizing the map into a series of concentric neighborhoods. These “Hausdorff waterlines”, which will be discussed in Sect. 6, move inward from the map edge a uniform distance y1 y2 y3 …, and subdivide the field into neighborhoods of points relative to the border. Points in the inmost neighborhood(s) are, obviously, those points most distant from the edge, both on the map and on the globe. 5 Drawing the Grid and Creating a Map 33 Fig.