Convection Heat Transfer by Vedat S. Arpaci

By Vedat S. Arpaci

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Vapor is supercooled or in a supersaturated state without a phase transformation since condensation transfers heat to the adjacent wall. The vapor temperature is equal to the condensing wall temperature and the saturation temperature (Ts) corresponding to vapor pressure ( pv) is higher than Tw. The liquid and vapor state for a liquid droplet in equilibrium with surrounding vapor in a phase diagram. “EF” is supercooled and “FG” is super heated state of vapor at a given wall temperature, Fig. 14b.

15b, c. There is some conflict in the calculation of volume of deformed drop and its experimental validation for sessile drops on an inclined surface. Dussan (1985) and Elsherbini and Jacobi 2004a, b suggested that approximating the drop shape as spherical cap can lead to 10–25 % errors in volume. Based on experimental evidence, others (Extrand and Kumagai 1995; Dimitrakopoulos and Higdon 1999) believe that such approximation is quite valid for a small drop. As pendant drops tend to be small, the spherical cap approximation is used in the present work.

In the present monograph, the leading side angle (θmax) is assumed equal to the advancing angle (θadv) of drop and trailing side angle (θmin) equal to the receding angle (θrcd) at criticality for determining the size of drop at criticality. Various researchers (Leach et al. 2006; Ma et al. 2008; Kim and Kim 2011; Rykaczewski 2012) have reported that heat transfer rate increases with diminishing contact angle hysteresis since criticality of drop slide-off/fall-off is inversely proportional to it.

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