Deutsche Mark Diplomacy: Positive Economic Sanctions in by Randall E. Newnham

By Randall E. Newnham

No matter if fiscal sanctions paintings in any respect, and the way they paintings in the event that they do, are questions that experience lengthy been debated by way of students of diplomacy. utilizing a brand new analytic strategy, which distinguishes among optimistic and destructive sanctions and among particular and basic sanctions, this booklet goals either to illustrate the significance of monetary linkage and to give an explanation for the diversity of types it might probably take. Deutsche Mark international relations attracts help for its theoretical arguments from a cautious examine of Germany's efforts to realize political leverage over Russia through monetary skill from 1870 into the Nineteen Nineties. targeting significant powers over an extended interval, in which regimes replaced and matters assorted, Randall Newnham reveals powerful facts to teach that optimistic kinds of linkage similar to international reduction and exchange or credits incentives are more suitable than damaging kinds comparable to embargoes. His e-book considerably expands our knowing of the position performed via fiscal sanctions in overseas politics whilst that it bargains a extra systematic manner of explaining German overseas coverage.

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76. Recent works focusing directly on Germany’s economic influence on the weaker East European states include Stent, From Embargo to Ostpolitik; Patricia Davis, The Art of Economic Persuasion (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998); Patricia Davis and Peter Dombrowski, ‘‘Appetite of the Wolf: German Foreign Assistance for Central and Eastern Europe,’’ German Politics 6 (April 1997): 1–22; Robert Mark Spaulding, ‘‘German Trade Policy in Eastern Europe,’’ International Organization 45, no.

As Drezner indicates, several factors might be expected to increase the likelihood that positive sanctions will work. 82 It could be added that the relative overall power of the target state will be relevant as well; if it lacks other resources 80. -German Memo Irks Putin,’’ New York Times, May 23, 2001. 81. , Handbook of Political Science, vol. 7, Strategies of Inquiry, 79–137, here 118. 82. Drezner, ‘‘Complex Causation,’’ 195, 197–98, 201. 38 DEUTSCHE MARK DIPLOMACY to counter its economic weakness, it will be more easily overwhelmed by sanctions.

This generous behavior was, as one might expect given the objectives of the Third Reich, not altruistic. By paying prices higher than world market rates the Germans created dependency in the neighboring states, to the point that the states’ export production was largely specialized for the German market. The slightest threat of negative sanctions—cutting off the favored trade relationship—thus became a powerful political tool. The distinction between positive and negative sanctions remains valid.

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