Dog breeding, whelping, and puppy care by Gary England

By Gary England

A sensible and updated consultant to dogs replica for puppy breeders, veterinary scholars and veterinary surgeons. Written in an easy-to-use sort and provided in a virtually helpful layout with transparent illustrations. the knowledge is supported by means of references from the author's released paintings and his wealth of scientific adventure to shape the real authoritative textual content during this box. an important reduction to these looking an realizing of standard and irregular copy in addition to universal reproductive options

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G. Diff-Quik) • using a fixative and two stains the air-dried slide is dipped sequentially six times into each of the three solutions, washed immediately with water and allowed to dry before examination 48 Dog Breeding, Whelping and Puppy Care • advantages: (a) rapid (b) gives consistent results • disadvantages: (a) expensive (b) one solution (fixer) evaporates rapidly (even if not used) (c) solutions must be changed frequently Interpretation of vaginal smears There is a variety of uses of vaginal smears but commonly this is to establish the stage of the oestrous cycle or for the demonstration and identification of abnormal cells.

England. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1 Schematic representation of the various phases of the oestrous cycle of the bitch. e. 2 Relationship between day of ovulation and onset of pro-oestrus for 280 bitches. e. g. e. g. g. 5) • it is incorrect to refer to the luteal phase per se of the bitch as a false pregnancy • clinical signs of false pregnancy do occur in some bitches during metoestrus; they are not directly related to progesterone concentrations in the blood Pyometra • it is sometimes said that bitches that have false pregnancies are more prone to pyometra; this is not true but: (a) false pregnancy and pyometra occur at the same stage of the cycle (metoestrus) (b) a bitch that has had progestogen treatments for false pregnancies may be more likely to develop pyometra as a result Irregular oestrous cycles • it is sometimes said that bitches with irregular oestrous cycles are more likely to develop false pregnancies; this is not true Parity • it is sometimes said that allowing a bitch to have a litter will stop subsequent false pregnancies; this is not true Ovariohysterectomy • it is sometimes thought that bitches which have signs of false pregnancy after ovariohysterectomy have ovarian tissue which has not been removed; this may be true but: (a) most false pregnancies that occur after ovariohysterectomy are the result of surgery just before or during a false pregnancy.

F) Unstained smear from a bitch in pro-oestrus showing forming crystallization pattern. (g) Unstained smear from a bitch in oestrus showing significant crystallization pattern. (h) Vaginal smear post mating showing spermatozoa, two polymorphonuclear neutrophils, erythrocytes and a single large intermediate epithelial cell. e. between 60 and 90% of cells are straight sided and have small (pyknotic) nuclei or no nucleus (they are then called squames) NB: A ‘false’ or early peak of cornification sometimes occurs before the real peak; this can be recognized by the vague (pale staining) nature of the squames – the cause of this is unknown but it is not reported by those who use trichrome stains.

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