By Kate Menken
This booklet explores how high-stakes assessments mandated by means of No baby Left at the back of became de facto language coverage in U.S. faculties, detailing how checking out has formed curriculum and guide, and the myriad ways in which exams at the moment are a defining strength within the day-by-day lives of English Language rookies and the educators who serve them.
Read or Download English Learners Left Behind: Standardized Testing as Language Policy (Bilingual education & Bilingualism) PDF
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This e-book explores how high-stakes checks mandated via No baby Left at the back of became de facto language coverage in U. S. colleges, detailing how checking out has formed curriculum and guideline, and the myriad ways in which assessments at the moment are a defining strength within the day-by-day lives of English Language beginners and the educators who serve them.
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Additional info for English Learners Left Behind: Standardized Testing as Language Policy (Bilingual education & Bilingualism)
In addition to the federal legislation detailed in the preceding chapter, there is also city and state legislation pertaining to the provision of language support services for ELLs with which schools must comply. qxd 38 1/16/08 7:57 PM Page 38 Part I: Language Policy Context ASPIRA Consent Decree of 1974 is an agreement between the New York City Board of Education and ASPIRA of New York, a nonprofit organization focusing on the education of Latino youth. The ASPIRA Consent Decree mandated the provision of quality bilingual education programs for students ‘whose English language deficiency prevents them from effectively participating in the learning process and who can more effectively participate in Spanish’ (cited in Rappaport, 2002: 100).
Entitled the No Child Left Behind Act, the new law builds upon prior federal education legislation yet focuses even more heavily on testing. The law’s primary focus is not solely English language learners, but rather its mandates apply to all students. That said, since the passage of the Bilingual Education Act in 1968, no federal education policy has as greatly impacted English language learners (ELLs) as No Child Left Behind (NCLB). qxd 30 1/16/08 7:53 PM Page 30 Part 1: Language Policy Context No Child Left Behind repealed the Bilingual Education Act and encourages English-only approaches (Crawford, 2002b; Evans & Hornberger, 2005; Wiley & Wright, 2004).
4% were in ESL programs. 8% were in ESL programs (New York City Department of Education, 2006b). In June 2006, I had the opportunity to attend a meeting with the Office of English Language Learners of the New York City Department of Education, in which these data were first shared publicly. When I asked why bilingual education enrollment had recently decreased, an administrator from that office responded by saying that the accountability requirements of No Child Left Behind are affecting bilingual education programs, so that New York City is ‘under the same pressures as everyone else, so what is happening here is the same as what you see happening everywhere, nationally, to bilingual programs’ (administrator, New York City Department of Education, meeting notes, 22 June, 2006).