By Brian Coles
Necessities of Avian drugs and surgical procedure is designed as a concise fast reference for the busy practitioner and animal nurse. Eminently functional, this vintage avian textual content is prized for its down-to-earth approach.new contributions from international popular specialists in avian medication new bankruptcy at the exact senses of birds, an figuring out of that's an important while giving suggestion on avian welfare problemsfully updated at the newest diagnostic and imaging ideas avian zoonotics are highlighted in infectious ailments part
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Additional info for Essentials of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Not all birds inhabiting arid areas are relatively independent of water. Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulus), which live in the arid central area of Australia, can go for quite long periods without water. However zebra ﬁnches (Poephila guttata), although found in much the same area, are always near water and are very water dependent. The signiﬁcance of the loops of Henle Their presence or absence is important because it is here that re-absorption of water and solutes takes place via a counter-current system as in mammals.
Like mammals, they have both free nerve endings and encapsulated nerve endings. The free nerve endings are often supplied by unmyelinated or thinly myelinated axons that include the C-ﬁbers and the Aα-ﬁbers. These nerve endings transmit thermal information or nociception. The encapsulated nerve endings 24 Essentials of Avian Medicine and Surgery are mechanoreceptors. They are supplied with thickly myelinated ﬁbers of the group II, group I or Aα or Aβ type. These different ﬁber types belie the fact that these ﬁbers transmit their electrical signals at different velocities.
The optic tectum projects to the thalamus which then sends ﬁbers to the ectostriatum, homologous to optic cortex of mammals. From here, ﬁbers project to forebrain nuclei for interpretation. Birds have excellent visual memory as some use this for caching food while others use this ability for homing. Clarke’s nutcrackers have been found to cache up to 6,600 food items and are able to remember where they are stored. Pigeons are capable of concept discrimination with great ﬂexibility regardless of whether the target concept is biologically signiﬁcant or not.