By Lars Johanson, Bo Utas
This quantity offers with the often misinterpreted evidential different types - grammaticalized expressions of subjective "experience" - present in the verbal platforms of Turkic and Iranian languages, in addition to in a few of their Slavic, Finno-Ugric, Tungusic, Caucasian and Armenian touch languages.
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Additional info for Evidentials: Turkic, Iranian and Neighbouring Languages
2. Typological Per spectives. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier. ) 1995 Modality in grammar and discourse. (Typological Studies in Lan guage 32). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Co. ), 349-365. ). 1986 Evidentiality: The linguistic coding of epistemology. : Ablex. Comrie, Bernard 1976 Aspect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Given, Talmy 1982 "Evidentiality and epistemic space", Studies in Language 6: 23^19. ), 113-136. ) 1982 Tense-aspect: between semantics and pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
14) a. men I b. men I e. u (s)he cuxur now piti write piti write pitibar write-DUR ioxtir not-DiR joxa not-iNDiR 'I am writing now' 'I am not writing' '(S)he is not writing' 3. Discourse-pragmatic factors Speakers choose socially meaningful speech styles based on the situa tion and its participants. The social and pragmatic intentions of the par ticipants and the type of communication mode ("genre") to a large ex tent determine the choice of indirective markers. e. the information is reported/inferred/ discovered/uncertain).
The social and pragmatic intentions of the par ticipants and the type of communication mode ("genre") to a large ex tent determine the choice of indirective markers. e. the information is reported/inferred/ discovered/uncertain). Social factors such as deference, pragmatic fac tors such as foregrounding, and structural factors such as the required collocations associated with certain genres can all contribute to the choice of indirective markers. 1. Intentionality The intentions of the participants vis-à-vis the conversational topic and each other can result in the choice of indirectives to mark what is clear ly direct experience.