Explaining English Grammar (Oxford Handbooks for Language by George Yule

By George Yule

This booklet is designed to assist academics comprehend English grammar and clarify it to their scholars. each one bankruptcy makes a speciality of a troublesome quarter and provides routines for college students in addition to educating principles.

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7 shows, there is little variation among Creole languages. All Creole groups include languages where free tense and/or aspect markers precede the verb, and where the order of clausal constituents is S T/A V O. In addition, there is Sranan, which in one analysis (Voorhoeve 1957) has a prefixed aspect marker; Cape Verdean and Kituba, which have a suffixed marker of anterior tense in addition to the free preposed tense markers; Kriyol, where the free tense marker follows the verb; and Afrikaans, where the order S Past O V alternates with SVO.

1 for an explanation of the computation. The area includes Mexico and the Aztecan and Mayan languages of Central America. Word order T(A)+V No. % V+T(A) No. % T(A) V No. % V-initial 8 11 9 12 5 7 V-medial 6 8 10 14 4 5 V-final 5 7 25 34 1 1 Uncertain 10 14 24 33 All orders 24 33 53 73 9 12 V T(A) No. % 1 1 Total No. % 18 25 16 22 3 4 28 38 2 3 32 44 6 8 N = 73 An empty cell means that there is no language of the relevant type in my material. 6). A few genera have free tense or aspect markers (six genera altogether—some of these have both preposed and postposed markers), but the great majority (86%) of all genera are suffixing.

De-llo studente 'of-the student' b'. * Sono de-llondra. In (5 3 a') the preposition di forms a word with the initial constituent of its complement, the definite article lo. However, since the preposition can have complements that are not introduced by an article, as in (53b), the process that has applied in (53a') is not interpreted as a regular morphological one. The example (53b) shows that it is not a regular phonological process, either, since the phonological environment of (53a) is also found in (53b), where the process On Syntax and Complex Words 39 does not apply.

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