External Parasites of Small Ruminants: A Practical Guide to by Peter Bates

By Peter Bates

Sheep and goats are farmed through the global for meat, fibre, milk and leather-based. those small ruminants are very vulnerable to exterior parasites, which has major implications for his or her healthiness and welfare in addition to the standard and cost of the top items for which they're farmed. This booklet offers useful tips on fighting and controlling ectoparasites that give a contribution to affliction and an infection in sheep and goats, discussing forms of parasites, the illnesses they reason and what equipment of regulate can be found, in addition to wider implications resembling animal welfare and environmental affects.

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Extra resources for External Parasites of Small Ruminants: A Practical Guide to Their Prevention and Control

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Examination of naturally infested sheep in the field has shown that over 51% of lesions occur on the withers and the mid-back (Bates, 2009a). Artificial challenges on the withers, flanks and brisket have resulted in the rapid establishment of mite colonies and extensive lesion growth. However, failure to establish, or slower growth, were recorded on the face, head, tail-head and belly (Bates, unpublished observations). Although it is traditional throughout the UK to dock the tails of sheep in order to prevent fly strike, tails are often left intact in flocks grazing the moors and mountains of Wales.

Transmission of cuniculi can occur vertically as well, soon after birth. Williams and Williams (1978) and Heath (1979) found mites present in the ears of 5-, 10-21-, 28-, 35- and 42- day- old goats. P. cuniculi infestation appears to be a function of goat age. 5%) were in P. animals from 6 to 12 months old, followed suggested that infested housing must be kept free from animals for at least 12 weeks. , Bates, 1992a). , 1994). In Zimbabwe, Odiawo and Ogaa (1987) also recorded partial deaf- ness, head tilting, recumbency, ear scratch- ing and head shaking, walking in circles and occasional `epileptiform fitting', and the ears could be thickened with their edges rolled up with thick keratinized painful areas together with dried bloody exudate.

Cuniculi was still capable of 4. The decline (death or decay) phase. causing clinical disease in rabbits, and 5. The regressive phase. deduced that the mites do not need the 6. The cryptic phase. intestinal bacteria to live or to cause pathogenesis, and they may actually inhibit the development of infestation. The possible inhibitory effect of bacteria must not be underestimated. It must not be forgotten that the three macrocyclic lactone acaricides (doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin) are derived from species of Streptomyces.

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