By A. K. Legg, Spencer Drayton
Инструкция по ремонту и обслуживанию Fiat Punto (моделей c бензиновыми и дизельными двигателями). Дано детальное описание всех узлов и агрегатов и советы по их эксплуатации и техобслуживанию. Чертежи, таблицы и схемы электрооборудования.
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Extra resources for Fiat Punto 1994-1999 Service and Repair Manual
30 Final 360 Modena spaceframe increased use of complex castings and the widespread application of rolled aluminum proﬁles. Interesting components included the B-pillar complex casting, which typically replaces eight steel pressings in traditional vehicles, and the world’s ﬁrst application of laser welding aluminum (around 30 m in total). Following a number of years’ research, Audi unveiled the aluminum-intensive vehicle concept Audi 100 in 100% aluminum at the Hanover Fair in 1985. This development progressed to the Audi ASF (or Audi Spaceframe design) in 1987, and ﬁnally the production model, the Audi A8 (D2, and later D3 & D4 2010 versions).
The greatest endurable stress amplitude can be determined from a fatigue limit diagram, (e), for any minimum or mean stress. Stress range R is the algebraic difference between the maximum and minimum values of the stress. Mean stress M is deﬁned such that limiting stresses are M +/eR/2. 55 times the tensile fatigue limit. Frequency of stress reversal also inﬂuences fatigue limit e becoming higher with increased frequency. 0 for high tensile steel. 61 for repeated loading. A rearrangement and simpliﬁcation of the formula by Goodman results in the linear relation R ¼ (su/n) [1 e M/su] where 47 48 CHAPTER 2 Design and material utilization M ¼ s e R/2.
Even higher energies can be achieved through the use of a compressed air operated ball-bearing gun. e. if the energy input to cause a perceptible dent inservice is 10 J then the dent testing procedure should reﬂect this. 21 Test rig for measurement of panel dent resistance and stiffness 43 44 CHAPTER 2 Design and material utilization Test results generated from the above techniques will typically be compared against performance standards set by an individual manufacturer. 7 J and a stiffness that should exceed 45 N/mm2.