By John E. Halver
This 3rd variation of Fish food is a entire treatise on nutrient standards and metabolism in significant species of fish utilized in aquaculture or medical experiments. It covers nutrition required and utilized in chilly water, hot water, clean water, and marine species for development and replica. It additionally highlights easy body structure and biochemistry of the foodstuff and purposes of those rules to clinical and functional nutrition formulations and to production options for significant species used world wide in aquaculture. *Nutrient standards for nutritional formulations for fish farming*Digestive physiology*Comparative dietary specifications of alternative species*Fish as specified animals for definite metabolic pathways
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Additional info for Fish Nutrition, Third Edition
There are some feed ingredients in which as much as 50–80% of IE is lost as FE. Some grain by-products, such as ground corn, wheat, and wheat middlings, are included mainly as binders and ﬁllers to enhance the physical characteristics of the pelleted feed. Clearly the appropriate level at which to include these poorly digested materials represents a compromise between the nutritional value of the diet and practical considerations such as the mechanical durability of the feed aggregate. Most ﬁsh species digest protein and lipid very well.
1993) for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), Lupatsch et al. ), and Liu et al. 9. 8 for most species. 2. Effect of Temperature Fish are poikilothermic animals and water temperature, therefore, is the major factor determining their metabolic rate and energy expenditure. Variations in water (environmental) temperature have a great effect on their basal metabolism. 824 )−1 day−1 (3) where HEf is the fasting heat production (kJ), T is the water temperature (◦ C), and BW is the body weight (kg). Clarke and Johnson (1999) observed a curvilinear relationship between metabolic rate and temperature based on analysis of data from 69 teleost ﬁsh species.
More detailed studies with polar, temperate, and tropical species show no clear relationship between preferred environmental temperature and HEf or HeE across species (M´edale and Guillaume, 1999). 1. Bioenergetics 33 Within a species, increasing water temperature results in a curvilinear (almost-linear) increase in HeE up to a certain level (generally around the optimum temperature for growth), where an increase in temperature results in no increase in or, even, a depression of HeE. When the temperature is elevated further, ﬁsh stop feeding, and with further elevation metabolic disorders lead to death (upper lethal temperature).