Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere by Guido Visconti

By Guido Visconti

This e-book takes an introductory examine the physics and chemistry of the ambience and the weather dynamics. It presents the fundamentals in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, radiation and chemistry and explains the main attention-grabbing difficulties current within the learn of the ambience of the Earth and planets. This publication additionally deals the pc courses to unravel those difficulties. subject matters coated contain the newest evolution about the ozone gap, the carbon dioxide challenge, and chaos thought.

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If we are near one of the equinoxes, we know that when the shadow is at 45° northeast, it is 3 o’clock pm. There are of course some complications, because the path of the sun through the sky does not remain constant year-round, of course (Fig. 12). And this fact leads to an additional use of the gnomon. One can use the gnomon to determine the solstices. At the winter solstice (in December in the northern hemisphere, June in the southern), the sun will reach its lowest extent in the noontime sky, and thus the shadow cast by the gnomon at noon will be longest at this point than at any other time of the year.

In fact, we never directly observe (with the naked eye at least) a completely full Venus, as the planet is too close to the sun from our vantagepoint to be visible in this phase. In its crescent phase, Venus is on the same side of the sun as the Earth, and as close to it as possible. Thus, while we see less of the full disk of Venus lit, its apparent magnitude is greater because of the proximity of this light (Photo credit: NASA) orbit, it will be closest to the Earth when it is in its “new” phase (where Venus is between the sun and the Earth), and furthest from Earth in its “full” phase.

When it appears on one side of the sun from us in its orbit, Venus appears in our night sky as an star, coming into view just after the setting of the sun in the west, as the glow of the sun fades. As it moves further in its orbit, passing us and (from our perspective) continuing around the sun (remember than Venus moves more quickly through its orbit than does the Earth, as all planets closer to the sun move faster through their orbits), Venus becomes invisible to us for a period of days when it is too close to the sun from our perspective to be seen.

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