Fundamentals of physics : mechanics, relativity, and by R. Shankar

By R. Shankar

Professor R. Shankar, a widely known physicist and contagiously enthusiastic educator, was once one of the first to supply a path during the leading edge Open Yale path application. His renowned on-line video lectures on introductory physics were seen over 1000000 occasions. during this concise and self-contained e-book in keeping with his on-line Yale path, Shankar explains the basic options of physics from Galileo’s and Newton’s discoveries to the twentieth-century’s innovative principles on relativity and quantum mechanics.
The e-book starts on the least difficult point, develops the fundamentals, and reinforces basics, making sure a fantastic beginning within the rules and techniques of physics. It presents an awesome creation for college-level scholars of physics, chemistry, and engineering, for prompted AP Physics scholars, and for basic readers drawn to advances within the sciences.

teacher resources--including challenge units and pattern examinations--and additional info approximately Professor Shankar's path can be found at


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Extra resources for Fundamentals of physics : mechanics, relativity, and thermodynamics

Sample text

The unit vectors i′ and j′ are likewise rotated versions of i and j. The components in the two bases are shown by dotted lines and are simply the projections of A along the various axes. We want to relate (, ) to (Ax, Ay). 4 The same vector A is written as iAx + jAy in one frame and as i′ + j′ in the other. The dotted lines indicate the components in the two frames. First we express i′ and j′ in terms of i and j using the figure: Here are the details. The vector i′ has got a horizontal part, which is its length, namely, 1, times cos φ, and a vertical part that is 1 times sin φ.

Then I argued that since iAx and iBx are vectors along i, their sum is a vector of length Ax + Bx also along i. I did the same for j. In summary if then which can be summarized as follows: To add two vectors, add their respective components. An important result is that A = B is possible only if Ax = Bx and Ay = By. You cannot have two vectors equal without having exactly the same x component and exactly the same y component. If two arrows are equal, one cannot be longer in the x direction and correspondingly shorter in the y direction.

For now just remember that a half circle, instead of being 180°, will now be π radians, and a quarter circle will be , and so forth. How fast is this particle moving? It’s going around a circle, the angle is increasing at a steady rate ω, and so we know it’s going at a steady speed. Let us verify that by computing the velocity At t = 0, the velocity is v = Rωcos 0 j = Rωj, so it is moving straight up at speed v = ωR. You may verify that it has the velocity as shown in the figure at later times.

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