By Josiah Nelson Cushing
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Choi (1997) and Villalba (2000) used them before. Their systems, however, are markedly diVerent from mine. Information structure 39 antecedent. 12 Clauses 2 and 3 have not been discussed in the literature on dislocations, as far as I know. Clause 2 says that a dislocate will associate with the closest available antecedent. Structural asymmetry between antecedent and anaphor has been abundantly explored in the realm of sentence level anaphors and it has successfully been captured with the concept of c-command (Reinhart 1983).
Pick the card for ‘john’ from the top of the Wle. 2. Enter the information ‘he likes cake’ on the card for ‘john’ (this is the update). 3. Open a new card, label it ‘cake’. Put it on top. 4. Enter ‘john likes it’ on this card (another update). It is important to note here that this approach to the notion ‘‘topic’’ does not render the notion equivalent to ‘‘anaphor’’. I deWne an anaphor as a constituent that necessarily looks for an antecedent in the previous discourse or the immediate context (See p.
Part parlarem. pl. ‘Look, I already told you that we leave the furniture at home. ’ Notice that in all these examples, CLLDed constituents come in pairs—in fact, they form symmetric contrasts. This is, as a matter of fact, the most natural way of using CLLD. 51) Context: What did you do with the pen? ’ el the boli. pen When CLLD is used in this type of context, the hearer expects a continuation. Without this continuation, the hearer needs to Wnd some way to accommodate an alternative set (although, to be fair, this accommodation is easy to carry out).