Grammaticalization at Work: Studies of Long-term by Matti Rissanen, Merja Kytö, Kirsi Heikkonen

By Matti Rissanen, Merja Kytö, Kirsi Heikkonen

The way forward for English linguistics as envisaged by means of the editors of subject matters in English Linguistics lies in empirical reviews which combine paintings in English linguistics into normal and theoretical linguistics at the one hand, and comparative linguistics at the different. The TiEL sequence beneficial properties volumes that current fascinating new facts and analyses, and peculiarly clean ways that give a contribution to the general target of the sequence, that's to additional remarkable learn in English linguistics.

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As regards the expression of the set, in the earlier subperiods there are no great or obvious differences between the behaviour of the variants. As a result of later specification, the MAN compounds came to refer to all people in general (example (87)), which is relatively common even in Old English, while the simple items use grammatical means, such as the OFphrase (examples (67), (68) and (72)), and the subject and object associated with apposition (examples (83)-(86), dousse pers, they, pem, and the people, respectively).

G. R. Lakoff 1969; Sahlin 1979: 139-141; Quirk et al. 1985: 83-84). According to Lakoff (1969: 608), semantic notions such as presupposition, speaker's and hearer's beliefs and previous discourse play an important role in the choice of the variant in nonassertive contexts. 'Some' represents a positive orientation, 'any' neutral or negative. On the other hand, the differences between the 'some' and 'any' paradigms may be very subtle, and in some cases either form is acceptable (Sahlin 1979: 140-141).

And esca hine hwet he habbe bijeten mid his wohe domas. ' (54) But from all put together that I hear from other people, I am likely to pass as well as anybody. (EModE3 Pepys, The Diary of Samuel Pepys 315) (55) If any body should ask me, if your were the same Mr. Oates that was at St. Omers; I should say, I heard so; and it would be very good Evidence, unless some one else were produc'd. C2) (56) If ony man schal entre bi me, he schal be sauyd... (ME3 Wycliffe and Purvey, The New Testament John 10 9) That intonation plays an important part in the distinction between Anyl and Any2 is exemplified in (55), where the pronoun can have two different readings, indicated in spoken language by different intonations.

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