By Amrita Rohilla
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Extra info for Handbook Of Bacteriology
There is not necessarily a one-toone correlation between a reaction and the number of genes needed to carry out that reaction. For instance, six enzymatic steps may be involved in a given pathway. If an assay for the end product is performed, a positive reaction indicates the presence of all six enzymes, whereas a negative reaction can mean the, absence or nonfunction of one to six enzymes. Several other strain characteristics can affect phenotypic characterization; these include growth rate, incubation temperature, salt requirement, and pH.
3 x 109 to 3~0 x 109, relatedness of 70 per cent or more at an optimal reassociation temperature with 0 to 4 per cent divergence in related sequences, and relatedness of 60 per cent or more at a supraoptimal reassociation temperature. " When these two criteria are met, genome size and G+C content are always similar, and relatedness is almost always 60 per cent or more at supraoptimal incubation temperatures. The 70 per cent species relatedness rule has been ignored occasionally when the existing nomenclature is deeply ingrained, as is that for E coli and the four Shigella species.
For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference laboratory uses at least 46 tests to identify memb~rs of the Enterobacteriaceae, whereas most clinical laboratories, using commercial identification kits or simple rapid tests, identify isolates with far fewer criteria. ' . i . CLASSIFICATION BELOW AND ABOVE THE SPECIES LEVEL Below the Species Level " Particularly for epidemiological purposes, clinical microbiologists must distinguish strains with particular traits from other strains in the same species.