By Douglas Biber, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad, Edward Finegan
Книга Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English Книги Иностранные языки Автор: Douglas Biber, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad, Edward Finegan Год издания: 1999 Формат: pdf Издат.:Pearson ESL Страниц: 1203 Размер: 49,8 ISBN: 0582237254 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English is a innovative, corpus-based reference grammar of English, in accordance with a groundbreaking study venture to investigate the ways that English grammar is absolutely used. The publication seems at 4 textual content forms ¿ dialog, fiction, information reportage, and educational prose ¿ and experiences statistical findings in addition to interpreting the explanations that a specific grammatical selection. incorporates a six-year examine venture into the ways that language is de facto used. finds which buildings, tenses, and lexical offerings take place, and the way their distribution differs in numerous textual content kinds. Analyzes traditional language in each one bankruptcy, in line with research of the true daily conversations within the Longman Spoken American Corpus and the British nationwide Corpus. includes over 350 tables and graphs that convey the frequency of buildings throughout varied registers, from dialog to fiction to educational prose.
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Extra info for Hardcover, Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English
2). C Meaning Units can be described in terms of meaning. Although it is often possible to establish broad correspondences, there is no simple relationship between structure and meaning, or between syntactic role and meaning. 13). D Distribution and discourse function In this grammar, grammatical units are further characterized with respect to their distribution. A great deal of emphasis is placed on patterns of selection and use, especially in different registers, and on the interpretation of distributional differences in terms of discourse function.
Bye. ( c o ~ t) Cheers man. g. hm, uhhuh, ugh, yeah). Inserts are more marginal than lexical words and function words. It can indeed be debated whether some of the forms in our conversation passage should be recognized as words at all. But there is no doubt that they play an important role in communication. If we are to describe spoken language adequately, we need to pay more attention to them than has traditionally been done (see Chapter 14). Traditionally, interjections are the only type of insert that has been described in most grammars.
4 million words = 200 tokens per million words Analyses using interactive grammar-checking programs were based on much smaller samples, usually between 100,000 and 500,000 words per register. However, frequency counts from these analyses were also normalized to the standard basis per million words. ) Slightly different procedures were adopted in parts of Chapter 14, 'The Grammar of Conversation'; they are discussed in the analysis notes to that chapter. Normalized frequency counts can be translated into terms that are more familiar to most readers, using minutes of speech or book pages as the basis.