Herpetology, Second Edition: An Introductory Biology of by George R. Zug;Laurie J. Vitt;Janalee P. Caldwell

By George R. Zug;Laurie J. Vitt;Janalee P. Caldwell

It's a nice herp publication, with plenty of info. yet i assume there are more recent model of it at the market...

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Additional resources for Herpetology, Second Edition: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles

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The araeoscelidians were small (about 40 cm total length) diapsids of the Late Carboniferous and were an evolutionary dead end. In contrast, the saurian lineage gave rise to all subsequent diapsid reptiles. , 1988c), including a reduced lacrimal with nasal-maxillary contact, no caniniform maxillary teeth, an interclavicle with distinct lateral processes, and a short, stout fifth metatarsal. The Euryapsida apparently arose from an early split in the Sauria clade (Fig. 11). They comprise a diverse group of mainly aquatic (marine) reptiles, ranging from the fishlike ichthyosaurs to the walruslike placodonts and the ``sea-serpent'' plesiosaurs.

The anapsids developed a strong attachment of the parietal (skull roof ) to the squamosal (cheek) along with a broad and rigid supraoccipital attachment. In the diapsids, the opisthotic extended laterally to link the braincase to the cheek. A lateral expansion of the opisthotic also occurred in the synapsids but in a different manner. The robust stapes with its broad foot plate was a critical strut in the strengthening of the skull. This role as a supportive strut precluded its function as an impedance matching system (Carroll, 1988; also see the discussion of ears in Chapter 2).

8); already the divergence of the synapsids and reptilian stocks was evident. The Synapsida is the clade represented today by mammals; they are commonly called the mammal-like reptiles, an inappropriate and misleading name. The pelycosaurs were the first major radiation of synapsids and perhaps gave rise to the ancestor of the Therapsida, the lineage leading to modern mammals. Divergence among the basal reptiles apparently occurred soon after the origin of the synapsids, and again because of the absence of early forms and the later appearance of highly derived reptilian clades, there is uncertainty and controversy about the early evolutionary history of the reptiles.

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