By Farid F. Abraham

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**Extra resources for Homogeneous Nucleation Theory: The Pretransition Theory of Vapor Condensation**

**Sample text**

2. 5. 5 The chemical potential of an ideal gas (stippled line) and a real gas (whole line). The standard state, µ0 , at p 0 = 1 bar is shown for the ideal gas. The deviation of the chemical potential of the real gas from the corresponding ideal gas value at p is measured by the term RT ln φ. The chemical potential of ideal and real gases are illustrated in this figure. When µ − µid < 0 and φ < 1, attractive forces are important. For a liquid solution, we use a liquid state as the standard state.

E. from polarizable molecules, from polar molecules and from free charges, have very different relaxation times. They should therefore be counted as separate contributions Pα = k Pα k , where α equals i, o or s. The corresponding equilibrium displacement fields, Deq,k , found from a reversible transformation, are also different for the different contributions to the polarization. We shall not make the formulae more cumbersome by distinguishing these different contributions. The surface tension is, like the pressure, a function of T , µj , and Deq .

The planes that separate the closed surface from the homogeneous phases are parallel to the dividing surface. 23) where d is the position of the dividing surface. The surface concentration is often called the adsorption (in mol/m2 ). The Heaviside function, θ, is by definition unity when the argument is positive and zero when the argument is negative. It is common to choose d between a and b. Other excess variables than ΓA are defined similarly. All excess properties of a surface can be given by integrals like Eq.