Integrative Systems Approaches to Natural and Social by P. M. Allen (auth.), Professor Dr. Michael Matthies,

By P. M. Allen (auth.), Professor Dr. Michael Matthies, Professor Dr. Horst Malchow, Professor Dr. Jürgen Kriz (eds.)

At the beginning of the hot millennium, mankind is challenged by means of a paradox: the better the obvious wisdom turns into, the higher the uncertainty in realizing and predicting how the realm works seems. This booklet provides the description of a brand new foundation of platforms technological know-how and a technique for its purposes in complicated environmental, fiscal, social, and technological systems.

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Additional resources for Integrative Systems Approaches to Natural and Social Dynamics: Systems Science 2000

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Individuals of any particular type, X, all differ from one another by being located at different points in space. By using distributions of choice and behaviour around an average, the microscopic diversity of individuals is taken into account, and this allows the "exploration" of seemingly unpopular, irrational and non-average decisions. In this way, changes in the "payoff" for novel behaviour can be detected in the system, and innovations can take The Dynamics of Knowlegde and Ignorance: Learning the New Systems Science 13 off.

For example, let us consider 20 points, and between each of them a random number is used to choose a value for the potential interaction on i fromj: = fr . (2 . Random (j, i) -1) Interaction (j, i) (2) where random (j, i) is a random number between 0 and 1, and fr is the strength of the interaction. Each population that is present will experience the net effect that results from all of the other populations that are also present. Similarly, it will affect those populations by its presence L: Net Effect on i = LX (j) .

For example, we may want to make something that goes faster, is lighter and costs less than the previous model. We may do this by trying a design with thinner metal, which may indeed increase performance in all of these directions. However, it may also be that the thinner metal gives rise to the possibility of structural failure, which makes it in fact, a step backwards instead of forwards. So, we may discover that our first attempt is either further up or down the fitness peak, and of course this only concerns the dimensions we have thought of, and not those which we consider secondary, or have not thought of yet - like production difficulties, looks etc.

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