Intellectuals and Apparatchiks by Kevin C. O'Connor

By Kevin C. O'Connor

This publication lines the origins and actions of an alliance of conservative Communist occasion experts and Russian nationalists through the past due Soviet period. particularly, it examines how and to what volume hitherto orthodox Communists sought political allies within the Russian nationalist circulate with the intention to garner aid for halting the reform application and saving the Soviet kingdom from cave in. targeting the perestroika interval, Dr. Kevin O'Connor explains intimately how Marxism-Leninsim receded into irrelevance, forcing orthodox Communists to desert their Marxist ideas in desire of significant Russian nationalism.

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Although he disdained nationalism, Lenin recognized that it could be useful for advancing his main objective, which was to create the world's first socialist society. In December 1922 a Union Treaty formally united the nominally independent Ukraine, Belorussia, Transcaucasia (an amalgamation of Georgia, Azerbaidzhan, and Armenia), and RSFSR (which included what would later become the Central Asian republics) into a "confederation" of equal Soviet republics. 18 Thus with the formation of the USSR the Bolsheviks had arrived at a compromise federal solution that would ostensibly satisfy the aspirations of the non-Russian peoples by providing them varying degrees of autonomy, but that in reality concentrated most powers in the center.

Russians, the RSFSR, and Soviet Nationalities Policy, J9J 7-1953 39 I drink first of all to the health of the Russian people because it is the leading nation of all the nations belonging to the Soviet Union. I propose a toast to the health of the Russian people because it earned in this war general recognition as the guiding force of the Soviet Union among all the peoples of our country. I propose a toast to the health of the Russian people not only because it is the leading people, but also because it has a clear mind, a firm character and patience.

41. Michael Hechter, Containing Nationalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002),7. 42. Anthony D. Smith, 74. 43. Yitzhak Brudny, Reinventing Russia: Russian Nationalism and the Soviet State, 1953-1991 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998), 8-13. " 44. When it originated during the civil war, National Bolshevism, first espoused by Russian patriots opposed to the Bolshevik seizure of power, was based on the assumption that communism in Russia was a temporary phenomenon. Viewing communism in the broader view of Russia's historical trajectory, National Bolsheviks such as Nikolai Ustrialov hoped that the Bolshevik regime would eventually become more Russian in nature and would defend Russian national interests.

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