Introduction to the Fishery Sciences by William F. Royce (Auth.)

By William F. Royce (Auth.)

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027 Winter 100 200 300 1 Fig. 10. Diagram of temperature, salinity, and density structure of the Subarctic Pacific Ocean off British Columbia [Source: J. P. Tully (1965). Time series in oceanography. Trans. Roy. Soc. Can. ] extreme salinity unusual temperature conditions prevail—the discussion of which is beyond the scope of this volume. The thermocline is a barrier, a zone of stable water through which mixing of the waters does not occur. It is a zone oflarge temperature change which must be accommodated by animals swimming through it.

Silicon is abundant on earth but not readily soluble. It is not required for nutrition in the strict sense of the word but is needed by certain phytoplankton for their skeletons. Apparently it is recycled rapidly from organic to soluble inorganic form, but the chemistry is not well understood. A shortage has been shown to limit phytoplankton populations, but unlike nitrogen and phosphorus it is usually available in adequate quantities. All three of these nutrient elements usually occur in the surface waters of lakes and the ocean in small quantities which are rapidly changeable depend­ ing on their utilization by plants.

Wind drag on the surface of the water can pile it up slightly along the shore. Atmospheric pressure commonly varies by the equivalent of between 10 and 20 cm of water and occasionally by more than 50 cm. Water changes its volume at the surface as it is either heated or cooled and as it either receives rain or evaporates. The gravitational attraction of the sun and moon pulls the water toward them in regular daily and lunar cycles to cause the tides. All of the resulting paths of water movement are affected by the rotation of the earth.

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