By Lawrence E. Malvern

A unified presentation of the innovations and basic rules universal to all branches of sturdy and fluid mechanics.

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14). 14 Stress–strain curves for a polymer showing the 1% measure of yield strength For ceramics and glasses the strength depends strongly on the mode of loading. In tension, strength means the fracture strength given by the tensile fracture stress (symbol ft) . In compression it means the crushing strength, given by the compressive fracture stress (symbol fc) which is much larger than the tensile fracture stress, typically 15 times as large. 15. 15 The stress–strain curve for a ceramic showing the large variation in yield strength in tension (low) and compression (high) The symbol u is used to indicate the ultimate tensile strength, measured by the nominal stress at which a bar of material loaded in tension separates (breaks).

The rate of increase of electrical resistivity is given by the temperature resistivity coefficient. 9. 0 Polythene 9 100 x 10 – Rubber Approx. 14 50 x 10 206 x 10 Distinguish between the terms: (a) resistivity (b) conductivity. 5 mm2. Superconductivity – superconducting materials are those where the resistance falls to zero when they are cooled to a critical temperature and any magnetic fields are minimized. At these temperatures the superconducting material offers no resistance to the flow of current and so there are no wastages due to heat generation.

It is measured by the total energy that a material can absorb, that just causes fracture. Toughness (symbol, G) must not be confused with strength that is measured in terms of the stress required to break a standard test piece. e. MN/m2. Fracture toughness (symbol Kc) measures the resistance of a material to the propagation (growth) of a crack. 16), recording the tensile stress ( c) at which the crack propagates. 16 Establishment of fracture toughness Kc by loading a sample with a deliberately introduced through-crack of length 2c and recording tensile stress The quantity Kc is then calculated from: K c = Y σ c (π c ) 1/ 2 normal units for Kc being MPam1/2 or MN/m3/2 Engineering materials, processes and techniques 31 The fracture toughness (Kc) is related to the toughness by the relationship: Gc = ( Kc2 E 1-ν2 ) Y is a geometric factor, near unity, which depends on the geometry of the sample under test, is known as Poisson’s ratio where: Poisson's ratio ( ) = lateral strain of a strained material under load axial strain Note: axial strain is strain along the longitudinal axis of the material.