Iran: Empire of the Mind - A History from Zoroaster to the by Michael Axworthy

By Michael Axworthy

Iran frequently seems to be within the media as a antagonistic and tough state. yet underneath the headlines there's a attention-grabbing tale of a country of significant highbrow kind and intensity, and massive cultural significance. A kingdom whose effect has been super, not just on its neighbours within the center East yet at the global as a complete and during principles and creativity instead of via the sword.

From the time of the prophet Zoroaster, to the robust historic Persian Empires, to the revolution of 1979, the hostage challenge and present president Mahmud Ahmadinejad a debatable determine inside of in addition to outdoors the rustic. Michael Axworthy strains a shiny, built-in account of Iran's prior. He explains basically and punctiliously either the complicated succession of dynasties that governed historic Iran and the wonderful ethnic range of the fashionable nation, held jointly by means of a typical culture.

With Iran back the focal point of the world's awareness, and questions about the country's disposition and intentions urgent, Iran: Empire of the brain is a vital consultant to realizing a classy land.

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157–65). Each of these alternatives is a different potential mechanism for enforcing international criminal law. To the extent that any of these is widely perceived as legitimate, it would be a norm of international politics. The ICC, however, will likely achieve a degree of institutionalization (Stone Sweet 1999) that none of these other norms has achieved. That is because the ICC is a permanent supranational entity, with sitting judges and prosecutors. The particular set of norms embodied by the permanent ICC has been developed by the deliberate action of a set of actors in world politics.

Political scientists sometimes try to explain the existence of norms in purely utilitarian terms; rules simply serve the interests of rule makers. 30 Kratochwil’s analysis demonstrates persuasively that the prescriptive force of norms in international politics depends on the degree to which those norms can be justified through rational argument. Norms do not cause behavior in a mechanistic sense, but they do become reasons for actions by actors, particularly when the justification of a norm is viewed as persuasive.

I share this concern with creating space for explicitly normative critiques of the existing international system (Campbell 1992; Doty 1996; Lynch 1999; Walker 1993). 21 I accept that causation in any social process is an extremely complex phenomenon, and that at the level of world politics any individual analyst faces an almost infinite regress of underlying causes of proximal causes of immediate causes of particular outcomes that have been determined to be of interest. The call for parsimony by Waltz was never likely to lead to particularly deep understandings of causal processes (Waltz 1979).

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