By Sally P. Ragep
This publication offers the one severe version and English translation of Maḥmūd al-Jaghmīnī’s al-Mulakhkhaṣ fī al-hayʾa al-basīṭa, the main generally circulated Arabic treatise on Ptolemaic astronomy ever written. Composed within the early 13th century, this introductory textbook performed an important position within the instructing, dissemination, and institutional guide of Islamic astronomy good into the 19th century (and beyond). developing the bottom textual content is a primary prerequisite for gaining insights into what was once thought of an uncomplicated astronomical textbook in Islam and likewise for knowing the large statement culture that equipped upon it.
Within this volume, the Mulakhkhaṣ is located in the broader context of the style of literature termed ʿilm al-hayʾa, which has turn into the topic of in depth examine over the last 25 years. In so doing, it presents a survey of precis debts of theoretical astronomy of Jaghmīnī’s predecessors, either historical and Islamic, that can have served as capability assets for the Mulakhkhaṣ. Jaghmīnī’s dates (which previously remained unsettled) are tested, and it really is definitively proven that he composed not just the Mulakhkhaṣ but additionally different clinical treatises, together with the preferred scientific treatise al-Qānūnča, in the course of a interval that has been deemed one among medical decline and stagnation in Islamic lands. The publication can be of specific curiosity to students engaged within the learn of Islamic theoretical astronomy, yet is out there to a common readership attracted to studying what constituted an creation to Ptolemaic astronomy in Islamic lands.
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Additional resources for Jaghmini’s Mulakhkhas: An Islamic Introduction to Ptolemaic Astronomy
Markus Asper (Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2013), 333–34. P. Ragep or written during the early Islamic period that could arguably have been at Jaghmīnī’s disposal, either directly or indirectly, and found suitable to use and modify for his brand of theoretical astronomy so as to comply with Badr al-Dīn’s lofty proposal that he compose an elementary introduction toʿilm al-hayʾa. ”123 Indeed, once Ptolemy came on the scene, he undoubtedly had a profound impact on theoretical astronomy, including the development of the hayʾa tradition that became dependent on his works.
In the Planetary Hypotheses, Ptolemy assumes the following order of the celestial bodies: Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Fixed Stars, with the Earth at the center; each planet, as well as the Fixed Stars, is contained within a physical, geocentric sphere, and all these spheres are contiguously fitted exactly together without a void. See Willy Hartner’s seminal article, “Mediaeval Views on Cosmic Dimensions and Ptolemy’s Kitāb al-Manshūrāt,” in Mélanges Alexandre Koyré, 2 vols.
154 Given his neo-Platonic bent, Proclus’s ability to distinguish himself ––––––––––––––––– 149 Neugebauer, HAMA, 3:1036. For example, Proclus’s Hypotyposis lacks any discussion of the terrestrial realm, which is included in Ptolemy’s Almagest and a prominent feature of most hayʾa works. On the other hand, Ibn al-Haytham, like Proclus, omitted this topic altogether in his On the Configuration of the World; and furthermore, whereas Ibn al-Haytham does not discuss the sizes and distances of the planets, Proclus does.