By M. T. Sprackling (auth.)

6. 2 Creeping viscous movement in a semi-infinite channel a hundred and forty 6. three Poiseuille move in tubes of round cross-section a hundred and forty four 6. four movement of a Newtonian liquid among coaxial cylinders 148 151 6. five our bodies in beverages 6. 6 liquid movement and intermolecular forces 154 Non-Newtonian beverages 157 6. 7 6. eight Viscometers one hundred sixty bankruptcy 7 floor results 163 7. 1 advent 163 7. 2 extra floor unfastened power and floor pressure of beverages 163 7. three the complete floor power of beverages 167 7. four floor rigidity and intermolecular forces 168 7. five stable surfaces 171 7. 6 particular floor unfastened strength and the intermolecular capability 172 7. 7 liquid surfaces and the Laplace-Young equation 174 7. eight liquid spreading 178 7. nine Young's relation 181 7. 10 Capillary results 184 7. eleven The sessile drop 187 7. 12 Vapour strain and liquid-surface curvature 189 7. thirteen The dimension of floor loose energies 191 bankruptcy eight excessive polymers and liquid crystals 197 eight. 1 advent 197 eight. 2 excessive polymers 197 eight. three The mechanisms of polymerisation 198 eight. four the dimensions and form of polymer molecules 199 eight. five The constitution of reliable polymers 201 eight. 6 The glass transition temperature 203 eight. 7 Young's modulus of reliable polymers 205 Stress-strain curves of polymers eight. eight 206 eight. nine Viscous movement in polymers 209 liquid crystals 8.

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Then, the stresses acting on the material contained in the section ABCD are shown in Fig. 5(c). Only equal shear stresses act on the surface of this section, giving a state of affairs known as a pure shear stress. There is no associated change in volume for small strains, only a change in shape. In the above discussion the distortion of the cube was neglected in the calculation of the stresses because it is very small. 5(d), and this must be examined in more detail if the relationship between linear and shear strains is to be determined.

50 The elastic properties of matter Consider a rod deformed in tension by balanced forces Fa applied at its ends, such that an extension e is produced. 40] Let the rod be perfectly elastic, which means that Fa is a singlevalued function of e. 41] = Je' Fa de. I If Hooke's law is obeyed and the rod has an unstretched length Lo and area of cross-section at, then: stress, 0 = Ee = Oat extension, e = do load,Fa where e is the linear strain and E is Young's modulus of the material. 42] provided that at may be treated as a constant.

4 coordinate axes and mark lines PX and PY on the specimen parallel to Ox and Oy respectively. Let A be a point on PX, a distance dx from P and B be a point on PY, a distance dy from P. When the body is deformed elastically by a small amount let P be displaced to p', A to A' and B to B'. The lines P'X' and P'Y' are parallel to Ox, Oy respectively, A'A" is perpendicular to P'X' and B 'B" is perpendicular to P'Y' . The extensional or linear strain in the x direction is: 34 The elastic properties of matter (p'A" -PA)/PA and may be denoted by ex.