Mars Direct: Space Exploration, the Red Planet, and the by Robert Zubrin

By Robert Zubrin

“Bob Zubrin particularly, approximately on my own, replaced our pondering in this issue.” —Carl Sagan

If you ever daydream approximately house shuttle and human area flight—or in case your "Curiosity" is piqued by way of the purple Planet—it's time that you should get aboard Mars Direct.

The human race is at a crossroads. within the coming years, we are going to make judgements relating to our human spaceflight application that would result in one in every of known futures: the open universe of big name Trek, the place we let ourselves the chance to unfold our wings and try and flourish as an interplanetary species—or the closed, dystopian, and eventually self-destructive global of Soylent eco-friendly. If we ever desire to stay sooner or later that's the former state of affairs, our first stepping stone has to be a manned challenge to Mars.

In this four-part e-special, Dr. Robert Zubrin info the demanding situations of a manned Earth-to-Mars project. demanding situations which, in response to Zubrin, we're technologically extra ready to beat than the hindrances of the missions to the moon of the sixties and seventies. Dr. Zubrin’s quite basic plan, referred to as Mars Direct, may possibly feasibly have people at the floor of Mars inside a decade. Zubrin additionally discusses the present trouble of NASA, the promise of privatized house flight from businesses like SpaceX, and the bigger implication at the back of absolutely the necessity to open the ultimate frontier to humanity—the human race’s destiny as a species that takes the required child steps clear of the cradle that's planet Earth or, finally, perishes the following.

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Extra resources for Mars Direct: Space Exploration, the Red Planet, and the Human Future

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Why is an entire branch of chemistry devoted to the study of carbon-containing compounds? We study organic chemistry because just about all of the molecules that make life possible and that make us who we are—proteins, enzymes, vitamins, lipids, carbohydrates, DNA, RNA—are organic compounds. Thus the chemical reactions that take Introduction 3 place in living systems, including our own bodies, are reactions of organic compounds. Most of the compounds found in nature—those that we rely on for all of our food, for some of our clothing (cotton, wool, silk), and for energy (natural gas, petroleum)—are organic as well.

Now let’s see what fragment is lost to give the base peak. A base peak of 69 means the loss of an ethyl radical 198 - 69 = 292, whereas a base peak of 83 means the loss of a methyl radical 198 - 83 = 152. Because the two cycloalkanes are known to be very stable, we can assume they do not have three- or four-membered rings. A seven-carbon cycloalkane with a base peak signifying the loss of an ethyl radical must be ethylcyclopentane. A seven-carbon cycloalkane with a base peak signifying the loss of a methyl radical must be methylcyclohexane.

The chemical behavior of an element depends on its electronic configuration. 7 8 CHAPTER 1 Remembering General Chemistry: Electronic Structure and Bonding Lithium (Li) has a single electron in its 2s orbital. If it loses this electron, the lithium atom ends up with a filled outer shell—a stable configuration. Lithium, therefore, loses an electron relatively easily. Sodium (Na) has a single electron in its 3s orbital, so it too loses an electron easily. Each of the elements in the first column of the periodic table readily loses an electron because each has a single electron in its outermost shell.

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