By Gyula Klima
This choice of readings with wide editorial observation brings jointly key texts of the main influential philosophers of the medieval period to supply a finished creation for college students of philosophy. positive factors the writings of Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Boethius, John Duns Scotus and different top medieval thinkers good points a number of new translations of key thinkers of the medieval period, together with John Buridan and Averroes Readings are observed via specialist observation from the editors, who're major students within the box
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Extra resources for Medieval Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary (Blackwell Readings in the History of Philosophy)
To help with this task, this volume also contains a selective bibliography with pointers to further information about the authors and works only mentioned here, but not selected for this volume. The selections are organized doctrinally (as opposed to, say, around persons or topics), adhering to the medievals’ own conception of the division of philosophical disciplines (presented in the first section). Thus, the three main parts of the volume present selections from the three major philosophical disciplines as Augustine (clearly influenced by the Stoic tradition) conceived of them: logic (including what we would call epistemology, in general, the discipline reflective on and regulative of the operations of reason in its search for the knowledge of Truth); physics/metaphysics (in general, the pure theoretical reflection on the first principles of Being); and ethics (or in general, practical philosophy, reflecting on the principles that ought to guide our actions toward what is truly and ultimately Good).
In the first place, even if Ockham did deploy several arguments against the existence of universal entities (assuming each of these putative entities to be some numerically one substance that is somehow common to many particulars), these and similar arguments were in common stock even before him, and since the time of Boethius nobody held this crude view of universals. ) So, Ockham’s genuine contribution to the debate was rather his rejection of the Scotistic notion of formal distinction required for a much subtler view of real universals, arguing for the intrinsic inconsistency of this view, and outlining an alternative view that explains the obvious universality of our common terms and concepts without any need to invoke such universal entities.
Some intellectual light directly coming from God, complementing, as it were, the natural functioning of the agent intellect. In this way, the epistemological controversy naturally paralleled the controversy in moral theology concerning the role of supernatural grace and the natural acts of human free will (weighed down as it is by original sin) in determining morally relevant human action. For in both cases the issue was to find out about the actual mechanisms of, and the balance between, supernatural and natural determinations of some specifically human activity, the theoretical activity of the intellect or the practical activity of the will.