Molecules and Life: An Introduction to Molecular Biology by Mikhail V. Vol kenshtein

By Mikhail V. Vol kenshtein

acids. The achievements of molecular biology testify to the good fortune of fabric technological know-how in a realm which, till lately, seemed completely enig­ matic and mysterious. additional medical advancements may still convey to mankind large advancements either in theoretical wisdom and in sensible purposes, specifically, in agriculture, drugs, and know-how. the aim of this publication is to provide an explanation for molecular biophysics to all who may well desire to know about it, to biologists, to physicists, to chemists. This publication comprises descriptive sections, in addition to sections dedicated to rigorous mathematical therapy ofa variety of difficulties, a few of which were studied by means of the writer and his collaborators. those sections can be passed over in the course of a primary interpreting. each one bankruptcy has a specific bibliography. This publication is way from an exhaustive treatise on molecular biophysics. It offers largely with questions on the topic of the constructions and capabilities of proteins and nucleic acids. M. V. Vol'kenshtein Leningrad, September, 1964 CONTENTS bankruptcy 1 Physics and Biology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Physics and existence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Molecular Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . three Molecular Biophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine Thermodynamics and Biology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 details conception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 bankruptcy 2 Cells, Viruses, and Heredity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 The dwelling cellphone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 telephone department. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Viruses and Bacteriophages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty four easy legislation of Genetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Mutations and Mutability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Genetics of micro organism and Phages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty six bankruptcy three organic Molecules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy nine Amino Acids and Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy nine Asymmetry of organic Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 basic constitution of Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ninety four Nucleic Acids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one zero one a few Biochemical methods within the mobile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 bankruptcy four Physics of Macromolecules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 actual houses of Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9. Structure of centrioles (cross section of an electron micrograph, magnified 175,000 x). 36 CELLS, VIRUSES, AND HEREDITY shapes of the chromosomes are absolutely constant for any given form of organism. , there are two chromosomes of each type. Such cells are called diploid. , a total of 46; in the somatic cells of the drosophila fly, there are four pairs of chromosomes; the somatic cells of soft wheat contain 21 pairs of chromosomes. In the sex cells, the gametes, the number of chromosomes is reduced by a factor of 2, that is, there is only a single chromosome from each pair.

Lla), a spindle forms and chromosomes appear in the nucleus. Then a specific process follows, the synapsis, or conjugation, of homologous chromosomes. Two chromosomes of each pair combine with each other (Fig. llb). The chromosome is a nonhomogeneous structure and its individual parts differ from each other both morphologically and functionally. --J&J/ 7i~rn- ~ d) e) g) h) f) i) i) Fig. II . Scheme of meiosis. The number of chromosomes has been taken as four and the initial cells are diploidal.

Consequently, it is rational to relate the information to the logarithm of the probability. In this particular example, the probability that a definite number will turn up on the die is POl = 1/6, The probability that a definite number will fall on the first and second die is Po = P01 P02 = 1/36 The information is I = - K log Po = - K log Po 1 - K log P02 where K is a proportionality factor. It is evident that I is proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of the number of possible events in the initial situation (before the casting of the die, l/Po = 36 possible results) to the number of actually realized events in the final situation (in this particular example, one event is 3 on the first die, 5 on the second).

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