Montague Grammar by D. Partee

By D. Partee

This quantity represents a few preliminary makes an attempt to increase Richard Montague's paintings at the syntax and semantics of normal languages. Taken including Montague's gathered works at the conception of language, it makes to be had to linguists and philosophers a view of the diversity of purposes of Montague's concept to difficulties of syntax and semantics, and a few comparisons of Montague's method of different theories of language. Seven of the authors are basically philosophers, and 5 are essentially linguists; their techniques are on no account homogeneous, yet all proportion with Montague a priority for treating semantics as conscientiously as syntax and a wish to discover systematic connections among the 2. (from the Preface, p. xi).

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Gottlob Frege, 'Über Sinn und Bedeutung', Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik 100 (1892) 25-50; translated as 'On Sense and Reference' in P. T. Geach and M. Black, Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege, Blackwell, Oxford, 1960. J. A. Goguen, 'The Logic of Inexact Concepts', Synthese 19 (1969) 325-373. David Kaplan, Foundations of Intensional Logic (doctoral dissertation), University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1964. David Kaplan, 'Quantifying In', Synthese 19 (1968) 178-214.

We can also reopen the question of letting verb-phrase intensions be Carnapian rather than compositional. We rejected this simplification before, principally because it would require a projection rule which was not of our general function-and-arguments form; but that consideration no longer holds after names and verb-phrase-plus-name combinations are done away with. A lesser objection still applies: the simplification only works for extensional verb phrases. If any non-extensional verb phrases exist, they cannot go into our new basic category YP with Carnapian intensions.

If so, we will also call e a meaningful expression, pn a surface structure of e, /J„-i and ... and p2 intermediate structures ofe, px a base structure ofe, and m a meaning ofe (all relative to the grammar ). However, we will call any phrase marker/; a base structure in iff it represents a meaning relative to L, whether or not it is the base structure o/any expression; thus we allow for base structures which arefilteredout by not being the first term of any derivation in T. The representing relation given by a grammar is by no means a one-to-one correspondence between meanings and expressions.

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